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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 73



(a) Rava exempts someone who intends to throw an object two Amos, but he inadvertently throws *four*, because he neither forgot Shabbos nor the Melachah (the classical interpretation of Shogeg), but simply did not mean to do what he did, and he is therefore termed 'Mis'asek', like the previous case of cutting).

(b) Had Rava issued his ruling only in the first case (of cutting), we would have said that he is Patur there- only because the cutting that he intended to perform was not a Melachah that is Asur, but in the second case (that of throwing), where throwing is Asur (only his intention lacked the required Shiur to be Chayav), we would have said that even Rava will agree that he is Chayav.
And had he added only the second case, we would have said that Rava only exempts him in *that* case, because he did not intend to throw four Amos, but in the third case, where he meant to throw four Amos - albeit in the Reshus ha'Yachid - he would be Chayav, since the act that he meant to perform was one of Chiyuv. Consequently, Rava needs to state his Din in all three cases.

2) According to Abaye, Zadon Shabbos, in the Mishnah of 'Avos Melachos Arba'im Chaser Achas', speaks when he knew about all the Melachos of Shabbos, but did not know their Shiurim.
According to Rebbi Yochanan, it speaks when he knew about the Isur La'av, but not about the Chiyuv Kares.
And according to Rava (even if he holds like Resh Lakish with regard to Shagag be'Kares ve'Heizid be'La'av), it speaks when he was a Shogeg in every aspect of Shabbos - the La'av, the Kares and the Shiur, but he did know about Techumin, according to Rebbi Akiva, who maintains that Techumin is d'Oraysa.


1. The first group of eleven Melachos (from sowing to baking) were performed in order to obtain the dyes for the curtains (why it mentions baking instead of cooking, we shall see later).
2. The second group of five Melachos (from shearing to spinning) were performed in order to obtain the wool for the curtains.
3. The third group of eight Melachos (from stretching the threads of the warp to tearing) were performed when they wove the curtains.
4. The fourth group of seven Melachos (from trapping to cutting to size), were performed with the Tachash - from trapping it to preparing its skin for use as the top cover of the Mishkan.
(a) Tearing and erasing are only considered Melachos if one's intention was to re-sew or to write in the place where one had erased.

(b) Demolishing is also included in this group, because one is only Chayav is one demolshes in order to rebuild, as we learned on Daf 31b. Note: According to the Rosh (Si'man 6), untying too, belongs to this group of Melachos, and one will only be Chayav if one unties a knot with the intention of re-tying it.

(c) Placing threads in the loops, weaving, splitting threads, stitching, tearing, writing and erasing all share the same Shiur of *two* loops, *two threads. etc.

(d) Makeh ba'Patish is the final act of completing something (although in itself, it does not constitute any other Melachah). It is called 'Makeh ba'Patish', because when workers finished their work, they tended to bang their hammers on the anvil, to smoothen the base of the hammer, to be ready for use next time.




(a) Our Tana is speaking about Eretz Yisrael, where, due to the hardness of the earth, it was customary to plow *before* sowing - and it comes to teach us that *that* too, is called plowing, and carries with it a Chiyuv Chatas.

(b) Sowing, pruning, planting, re-planting an attached branch, and grafting are all incorporated in the Melachah of Zorei'a (although the latter two are included in planting too, since they are performed on trees, and not with seeds). Consequently, someone who performed all five Melachos in one Ha'alamah, will only be Chayav *one* Chatas.

(c) Pruning is a Toldah of sowing.

(d) When Rebbi Ami says that planting, re-planting a branch and grafting are also Chayav because of sowing, he means that they are also incorporated in sowing, so that, if someone performs them together with sowing, he will not be Chayav a second Chatas.

(a) Someone who prunes and also needs the wood, is Chayav because of two Melachos - reaping and planting.

(b) Aspasta is Lucerne-grass, which produces three crops monthly.
Consequently, someone who cuts Aspasta from the ground, is Chayav because *two* Melachos, reaping and planting.

(c) Someone who cuts a beet from its stalk, too, is Chayav because of *two* Melachos, because beets re-grow very quickly.

(a) Someone who plows, digs a hole and digs ditches in one Ha'alamah is only Chayav one Chatas, since they are all included in the Melachah of Choresh.

(b) Someone who removes a mound of earth or fills in a hole ...

  1. ... in the house - is Chayav because of Boneh.
  2. ... in the field - is Chayav because of Choresh.
(c) One is only Chayav for digging a hole, if one needs the hole, but not if one only needs the earth.

(d) One is not Chayav for digging a hole if he needs only the earth, even according to Rebbi Yehudah (who holds that one is Chayav for a 'Melachah she'Einah Tzerichah le'Gufah'), because if he does not need the hole, then he is automatically spoiling the field, and the Chiyuv on Shabbos is for Tikun (improvement) and not for Kilkul (destruction).

(a) Kotzer, Botzer, Goder, Mosek, and Orah are all words that mean harvesting or picking - Kotzer pertains to grain, Botzer to grapes, Goder to dates, Mosek to olives and Orah to figs.

(b) According to Rav Papa, someone who throws a clod of earth at a date-palm and knocks down some dates, is Chayav because of detaching and because of extracting - the dates from the bunches (See Tosfos DH 've'Achas'. - Extracting is a Toldah of Dash -threshing).

(c) Rav Ashi maintains that this is not the way that one usually detaches dates or extracts the dates. Consequently, in his opinion, he will not be Chayav at all.

(d) According to Abaye, the Melachah of Me'amer is confined to things that grow from the ground, but not to salt.

(a) 'Dash' means threshing; 'Menapetz' means beating the stalks of flax in order to separate the strands from the stalks; 'Menapet' means doing likewise to cotton.

(b) The reason that the Gemara calls Menapetz of flax, a Toldah of Dash and not of Menapetz of wool, is because flax grows from the ground - which renders it closer to Dash, than to Menapetz of wool, which does not grow from the ground.

1. Zoreh is winnowing.
2. Meraked is sifting.
(b) Since Borer, Zoreh and Meraked were all performed in the Mishkan, they are all included in the thirty-nine Melachos, in spite of the fact they are all similar.
(a) According to Abaye, the Mishnah does not mention Kotesh, because a poor man will eat his bread without Ketishah - and our Mishnah only deals with Melachos that are indispensable.

(b) Although our Mishnah does not mention Ketishah - for the reason mentioned above - he is nevertheless Chayav if he performs it on Shabbos.

(c) The Gemara rejects Rava's answer because, if Kotesh is omitted only because Rebbi lists specifically thirty-nine Melachos, and not forty, then would it not have been more sensible to omit Zoreh, Borer or Meraked (one of the three that are really the same Melachah), and to insert Kotesh, which is the same as Dash? In this way, *two* pairs of two Melachos which are really the same, will be mentioned twice, rather than *one* set of three, and one of the second pair, not at all. Consequently, the Gemara accepts Abaye's answer.

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