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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 60



(a) If the eye-less needle was used for tucking a woman's protruding locks out of sight, then it would be permitted for her to go out with it, just like she may go out wearing a garter, and for exactly the same reason i.e. because she would never dream of removing them to show her friends, however beautiful it looked.

(b) A woman would use the eye-less needle to part her hair during the week. However, the blunt end was attached to a sort of a gold brooch, to be used as an ornament on Shabbos.

(a) A 'Sandal ha'Mesumar' is a wooden shoe - a sort of clog - possibly with leather on top, which is somehow held fast by means of a series of nails.

(b) A man who has no wound on his foot is forbidden to go out wearing one shoe.

(c) According to the Yerushalmi, the reason for this prohibition is because, since both of his feet are healthy, people will suspect him of carrying the second shoe, hidden in his clothes.
Rashi's Rebbes however, explain that people might laugh at him for walking with one shoe on and one shoe off, at which he will, in his embarrassment, remove the shoe he is wearing, and carry it home.

(a) It is permitted to go into the street wearing a tried Kamei'a.

(b) Although one is not permitted to go into the street wearing armor, one is nevertheless not Chayav for doing so, since armor is worn and therefore, has the Din of clothes.

(a) Some say that people were hiding in a cave to escape an evil decree. No-one was permitted to leave or to enter. It happened once that, due to the shape of the shoe (which had two openings for the feet, so that it could be worn in two ways), a shoe worn by someone, left an impression in the ground that looked as if he had left the cave. When the people in the cave saw it, they thought that the enemy had found them, and flocked to the entrance to escape. A stampede ensued, in which, due to the Sandal ha'Mesumar that they all appeared to be wearing (which must have resembled hob-nailed boots), many of them were trampled to death.
According to a second opinion, the story ended the same way, but the catalyst was not the footprint, but a noise that they heard above the cave, and which they believed to have been someone from the enemy who had spotted them.
And yet a third version of the story is that they were in Shul when they heard a noise behind the Shul, which they took to be that of the enemy .... According to all the versions, more were killed then among themselves, than the enemy succeeded in killing.

(b) The episode took place on Shabbos, and it was the way of Chazal to make decrees of this nature as similar as possible to the event. Yom-Tov, like Shabbos, is a day of rest, when Melachah is not performed, as a result of which people assemble in Shul, so they included it in the decree.

(c) True, on fast-days it was not customary to work either, and people also assemble in Shul. However, the fact that they refrain from work is not because work is intrinsically forbidden, as it is on Shabbos and Yom-Tov; therefore fast-days were not included in the decree.




(a) Rebbi Chanina ben Akiva is referring to the occasion when they were once transported ashes of the Parah Adumah across the Jordan River in a boat, when they discovered a Kezayis of corpse stuck to the bottom of the boat, thereby rendering the ashes Tamei. Chazal then issued a decree prohibiting the transportation of the ashes of the Parah Adumah across any River, by any method of transportation, even by carrying it on foot across a bridge.
But according to Rebbi Chanina bar Akiva, they only prohibited taking the ashes across the River Jordan in a boat - in circumstances exactly similar to the episode.

(b) It was the number of nails that indicated their purpose. According to Rebbi Yochanan, it was *five* on each shoe that was ornamental, and according to Rebbi Chanina, even *seven* was permitted.

(c) The nails were placed two or three on either side of the shoe, and the odd one, where the straps of the shoe were situated - by the ankle.

(a) According to Rebbi, a 'Sandal ha'Noteh' was permitted if it had thirteen nails.

(b) A 'Sandal ha'Noteh' is a shoe that was flat one side, and thick on the other. The nails were fitted in order to level the sole of the shoe.

(c) Eifah said to Rabbah bar bar Chanah 'You, who are Talmidim of Rebbi Yochanan, do like Rebbi Yochanan (who requires five nails), we will do like Rebbi Chanina (who requires seven)'.

(a) A shoe that was stitched from the inside was called a Man'al, not a Sandal. And on a Man'al ha'Mesumar, Chazal did not decree an Isur.

(b) A shoe which had nails ...

1. ... bent like a crescent, or shaped like a metal plate or a peg, was not included in the decree of Sandal ha'Mesumar.
2. ... which covered the entire sole area, was also not included in the decree.
(c) No! Chazal forbade even walking from one bed to another with a Sandal ha'Mesumar.

(d) Both the Tana Kama and Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon agree that, in principle, an object that is usable, is not intrinsically Muktzah (like a K'li that is 'Muktzah Machmas Isur Melachto', which may be used 'le'Tzorech Gufo u'Mekomo'). However, Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon decreed Muktzah on the Sandal ha'Mesumar, because someone who handled it, was likely to wear it.

(a) If the nails literally fell out, then not more than four five would have been allowed to remain for the shoe to be permitted on Shabbos. That ia because how would the fact that the majority of nails fell out help him, since it could be ascertained how many nails fell out? The Beraisa which permitted a shoe even if more than four or five nails remained - provided more than half had fallen out - speaks when the nails did not actually fall out, but became bent, and how many nails became beny is something that can be seen at a glance?

(b) Not more than *four* nails may remain on a small Sandal ha'Mesumar, and *five* on a large one.

(c) When Rebbi permitted a Sandal ha'Mesumar even with thirteen nails, he was talking about a '*Sandal ha'Noteh*', where all the nails were needed to straighten the shoe. But by an ordinary Sandal ha'Mesumar, Rebbi required a maximum of *seven*.

(d) We can explain Rebbi Yochanan in the same way: Rebbi Yochanan himself requires a maximum of five nails for the Sandal to be permitted on Shabbos. A Sandal ha'Noteh however, is different, as we just explained, and he will agree that even seven nails (like Rebbi Nasan) or thirteen (like Rebbi) is also permitted.

(a) The Gemara found it necessary to rule against Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon, who forbids a Sandal ha'Mesumar because of Muktzah, because otherwise we would have tended to accept his ruling (despite the fact that his disputant is the Chachamim (a majority opinion). This is because his reason is so logical - as we explained in 7d.

(b) Rebbi Chiya, who had only recently arrived in Eretz Yisrael from Bavel, was afraid to acquire for himself the title 'the Babylonian who permits what is forbidden', which explains why he was hesitant to issue such a lenient ruling regarding a Sandel ha'Mesumar.

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