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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 54



(a) 'Kevulos' (from the word '*Kavlei* Barzel' - meaning fetters) means with their tails tied down, to prevent the males from coming on them.

(b) The Pasuk "Vayikra Lahem Eretz Kevul" etc., which refers to the twenty-two cities which Shlomoh gave to Chiram King of Tyre. He called that area 'Eretz Kevul' because its inhabitants were people who were 'heavily laden' with silver, and he was not happy with the gift, because people who are so wealthy, do not bother to work the land. Consequently, the land would prove to be unfruitful, which is also the meaning of the word in our Mishnah.

(c) As we just explained, 'Kevul' means a. unfruitful, and b. 'heavily weighed down'.

(d) 'Kevunos' means 'joined together' (because one clips the two ends together like a brooch), and refers to a woolen cloth which one wraps around the lamb's back, on the day it is born, in order to preserve the whiteness of its wool.

(a) Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira agrees, on principle, with Rebbi Yehudah, who differentiates between allowing a goat to go out with its teats tied in order to dry the milk or in order to catch the milk that drips. He disagrees with him in practice, however, on the grounds that it is difficult to know why they have been tied, and the person who sees them tied will think that it is permitted, even when it is to catch the milk.

(b) In a place where people do not tie up the goats' teats to catch the milk, only to cause them to dry, Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira will permit it - like Rebbi Yehudah, whereas Rebbi Yossi will not.

(c) Ravin, quoting Rebbi Yochanan, rules like the Tana Kama of our Mishnah, who permits the goats to go out in both cases.

(a) Rashi, in the Gemara, explains 'Metulteles' to be a stuffed pad that one places underneath the strap which is tied below the camel's tail. Its purpose is to alleviate the pain which the camel will otherwise feel when, as it goes downhill, the strap (which is holding the load on its back, stopping it from slipping on the camel's neck), cuts into its flesh. The pad now takes the strain.

(b) The reason for the prohibition is because, it may fall off, in which case, we are afraid that the owner will then pick it up and carry it.

(c) When it is tied to the placenta, we are not afraid that the camel will exert pressure, causing it to come loose and fall off, because pressure on the placenta is painful.

(a) One may allow one's camel to go out with its saddle-cloth tied both to its tail and to its hump, because, in that case, it will not fall off, and we do not need to worry that he may come to carry it.

(b) 'Akud' means either that the camels' forelegs are tied with its hind legs (like Yitzchak was tied at the Akeidah), or that its two forelegs are tied together, and so are its two hind legs (both are in order to prevent the camel from running away).

(c) 'Ragul' means that the foreleg is bent at the knee, and tied, also to prevent the animal from running away.

(a) Leading a camel-train conveys the impression that one is taking them to market, which is therefore forbidden on Shabbos.

(b) What one *may* do is hold all the reigns in one's hand, and go out leading the camels like that.

(c) No! When the Mishnah forbids winding the ropes around one's hand because of Kil'ayim, it refers, not to Kil'ai Beheimah, which does effect man (who is permitted to pull a load together with an animal).

(d) What the Mishnah *is* speaking about is Kelai Begadim, because it speaks when some of the ropes are made wool and some of linen. It is only forbidden if he also ties the ropes into a double-knot; otherwise, there is no Isur.

6) If two Tefachim of reigns which a person is holding, protrudes from his hand, it looks as if he is carrying the reigns, and is forbidden. Shmuel was strict and forbade even one Tefach (even though if someone would do this he would not have transgressed anything). The Beraisa which permits leading the ropes, provided the reigns do not dangle to within one Tefach from the ground, is not speaking about the end of the reigns, but the middle, which may not sag to within a Tefach from the ground.




(a) One may not allow a donkey to go out with a saddle-cloth which was not tied before Shabbos (and it will not help to tie it on Shabbos).

(b) The Mishnah forbids a donkey to go out even with a bell whose striker has been blocked, because it nevertheless looks as if he is taking his donkey to market.


1. A 'Sul'am she'be'Tzav'aro' is a splint that one ties by the donkey's cheek, to prevent it from turning its head, and rubbing a wound on its body with its teeth.
2. A 'Retzu'ah she'be'Raglo' is a thick thread tied to its foot, which is used for an animal which tends to take short steps, as a result of which its legs knock together. The thick strap, tied at the point on its legs where they touch, now prevents this from happening.
3. The strap on the chicken's feet is meant to enable the owner to identifify his chickens.
4. The strap ties the chickens' two feet together, and stops it from jumping up on to fragile vessels and breaking them.
5. The wagon under the ram's very large tail prevents the ram from damaging it on rocks and large stones.
(d) It appears that the splint that is used to protect the sore on the animal's back is more valuable than the one that is used for a fracture. Consequently, we are afraid that he may come to carry the former, but not the latter.
(a) The 'Chanun-stick' which they placed in the ewe's nose was in order to stimulate sneeing, to cause the worms in its nose to fall out.

(b) The rams did not need this, because of their constant fighting, during which they knock their heads together, causing the worms to fall out.

(c) The Gemara rejects the initial contention (that it was a device to keep the ewe warm after its wool had been shorn), because that sort of aristocratic treatment is reserved for wealthy people like Mar Ukva (who was also an important man, since he was the Av Beis-Din) - but not for a sheep!
The Gemara also rejects the second contention (that it was a contraption to keep it warm during child-birth), because that, too, is the sort of thing that one might do for one's wife, whom one loves - like Rav Nachman for his wife Yalsa - but for a sheep?

(d) 'Chanunos' in the latter context, means merciful, from the word 'Chanun'.

(a) A 'Gimon' is a small yoke that one attached to a calf's neck, to get it used to the idea of wearing a yoke. "ha'Lachof ke'Agmon Rosho" was a sharp rebuke of Yisrael by Yeshayah ha'Navi. He was asking them what the point was of bending their heads like reeds, when their hearts were not subdued. In any event, we see that an 'Agmon' is a reed which bends, and the purpose of the yoke is to teach the calf to bend its neck in the yoke.

(b) They tied the hedgehog-skin over the cow's breasts, to prevent leeches from feeding on its milk.

(c) We have already learnt above that everyone agrees that the colored strap is forbidden if it is meant to adorn the cow, but that, if it is to guard it, then Rav forbids it (because a cow does not require guarding), whereas Shmuel permits it.

(a) Rebbi Elazar used to Ma'aser twelve thousand calves from his herd, annually.

(b) It was not really Rebbi Elazar's cow at all, which used to go out with a strap, but his neighbor's. The Mishnah calls it *his* cow, because he was blamed for the transgression, since he failed to rebuke her.

(c) Someone who is able to rebuke his family, and fails to do so, is blamed for all their sins, and the same goes for someone who has the power to rebuke his whole city and even (someone like a prince or a king, who has the authority to rebuke) the whole world - meaning Yisrael.

(d) It is understandable that Hashem takes the *Jewish princes* to task, since they are the ones who sinned; but why should he take the *elders* - meaning the Sanhedrin - who are not guilty of sinning - to task? Unless the Pasuk means to inform us that He takes the elders to task for not rebuking the princes.

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