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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 50



(a) Our Mishnah itself writes 'Tomnin be'Gizei Tzemer, ve'Ein Metaltelin Osan. Keitzad Hu Oseh?' ... Clearly, the shearings remain Muktzah even after they have been used to wrap food. So how could Rava suggest otherwise?

(b) The Gemara refers to that Talmid as 'Hahu mi'Rabbanan bar Yomei' because it was the first day that he appeared in Rava's Beis ha'Medrash.

(c) The Gemara amends Rava's statement to say that the shearings are Muktzah as long as he did not designate them for that purpose The moment he does, they are no longer Muktzah.

(d) Ravina, who accepts Rava's original statement as it is, establishes our Mishnah by shearings which he put into his storehouse for commercial use, which everyone agrees requires a stronger designation to remove it from the realm of Muktzah. (But sheariings of wool meant for one's private use are indeed not Muktzah.)

(a) To change their Muktzah-status - according to the Tana Kama - date-palms which were originally cut for fire-wood, must be tied together before Shabbos, in order to demonstrate that one now intends to use them for seating.

(b) According to Shmuel - who holds like Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel - one is obligated to decide, before Shabbos, to sit on the palm branches on Shabbos.

(c) Rav Asi, like the Tana of the Beraisa, holds that it is sufficient to sit on them once, before Shabbos (even without specifically intending to use it for that purpose on Shabbos), to permit the branches to be moved.

(a) One is permitted to go out into the street with plasters of combed linen or of split strands of wool on one's wounds (and even to handle them - see Tosfos d.h. 'Aval'), when they have been dyed and tied on to the wound. This is in order to make it clear that he is not wearing the plaster as a cure, but rather to protect his clothes.

(b) Yes! If he went out with them just once before Shabbos, it is as he had designated them for that purpose, and they are no longer Muktzah (like Rav Asi).

(c) This is similar to the Mishnah in 'Tolin', which permits the direct removal of straw on a bed, provided that one either designated it as animal-food, or left a sheet or a cushion on it (a sign that he slept on the bed before Shabbos).

(d) Straw is Muktzah because it is usually used for cement-making.

(a) It is permitted to remove straw from a bed by pushing it off with one's body, provided one did not touch it with one's hands - just as all Muktzah is permitted in this way.

(b) Rebbi Chanina once followed Rebbi Chanina ben Akiva to a certain place, where he found palm branches which had been tied together to be used as fire-wood. He then instructed his disciples before Shabbos, to have in mind to use them to sit on Shabbos, and Rebbi Chanina was not certain whether this was due to a wedding, or in order to comfort a mourner. Apparently, Rebbi Chanina knew that, if not for the fact that it was for a wedding or a Beis Avel, Rebbi Chanina ben Akiva would not have permitted the palm-branches with no more than designation. So we see that Rebbi Chanina ben Akiva requires things that have been designated for a use that renders them Muktzah, to be tied.

(c) It appears that Rebbi Chanina ben Akiva was more lenient by a wedding and a Beis Avel (to permit the palm-branches even without tying) because it was for a Mitzvah.

(a) One may bring a box of earth into the house to use for all one's needs, provided he designates a specific corner for it.

(b) The Rabbanan require an act of preparation only when this is possible; by earth, where it is *not*, it is not necessary.

(c) It is forbidden to use chalk or sand for scrubbing vessels - either because, not having prepared them, they are Muktzah, or because he may scrape off some of the silver in the process (and the author of the Beraisa will be Rebbi Yehudah, who forbids a 'Davar she'Ein Miskaven').

(d) The Beraisa which forbids the scrubbing of silver vessels with 'Gartekun' goes even like Rebbi Shimon, who holds that a 'Davar she'Ein Miskaven' is permitted. He agrees however, that something which will inevitably occur ('Pesik Reisha') is forbidden - and 'Gartekun' will inevitably remove some of the silver.

(a) The Beraisa which forbids washing one's hair with chalk and sand cannot go like Rebbi Shimon. Why not?
Because the Mishnah in Nazir (which can only go like Rebbi Shimon Rebbi Shimon - who permits a 'Davar she'Ein Miskaven'), specifically permits a Nazir (who is not permitted to remove his hair) to wash his hair with chalk and sand. Why is that?
Because a 'Davar she'Ein Miskaven is Mutar'. So we see that chalk and sand do not inevitably remove hair, and are therefore permitted according to Rebbi Shimon.

(b) Two Tana'im dispute whether, according to Rebbi Yehudah, chalk and sand are likely to remove hair or not - hence the two Beraisos, one permitting it, the other forbidding.




(a) The Beraisa which permits washing one's face with chalk and with sand - despite the distinct possibility of the hair falling out, speaks about either a child, or a woman or a eunuch, all of whom have no beard.

(b) Even Rebbi Yehudah agrees that brick -dust, 'Kuspa de'Yasmin' and ground pepper are not likely to remove hairs from the beard.

(c) 'Kuspa de'Yasmin' is sesame (or sunflower) seeds which have been left to stand in violet-water, dried and ground. It is normally used to clean grimy hands.

(d) Rav Nechemya forbids the use of 'Barda' on Shabbos, provided the majority of its three ingredients does not constitute 'Ohel'. According to Rav Yosef, it should not contain more than one third 'Ohel'.

(a) Beating olives against a rock (to sweeten them) might be forbidden even during the week, because it renders the olives unappetizing and is a waste of good food. (Presumably, there is an alternative method of sweetening the fruit, whereby they will not become unappetizing. Alternatively, Rashi holds that olives are primarily meant for their oil - as the Gemara explains in Berachos - so that to render the olives unappetizing in this way, is considered a waste.)

(b) Shmuel permits putting bread to one's own personal use, only because bread does not spoil so easily, and only in a way that will not render it disgusting.

(c) Beating olives in this way is in any case, forbidden on Shabbos, because it renders the fruit fit to eat, for which one is Chayav because of 'Tikun Manah' (Makeh ba'Patish).

(a) Mar Zutra declined to wash his face with Barda, on account of the Beraisa, which permits a man to remove crusts of dirt or of a wound from one's skin, if it is to alleviate pain, but not to enhance one's appearance. This is forbidden because of the Pasuk in Devarim "Lo Yilbash Gever Simlas Ishah".

(b) According to his colleagues, the Pasuk in Mishlei "Kol Po'al Hashem Lema'anehu" - which teaches us that Hashem created everything for the sake of His glory, and which obligates us to treat our bodies with the respect that a 'Tzelem Elokim' (something created in the image of G-d) deserves - over-rides the Isur of "Lo Yilbash" etc.

(a) No! It does not follow that the Tana Kama *permits the pot to be returned*, should the shearings cave in, but that *he is not concerned that one might come to return it*, and transgress the Isur of Muktzah in the process.

(b) 'Notel u'Machzir' speaks when the shearings are still intact, and the Chidush of the Tana Kama, who permits it to be returned, is that he does not forbid one to take the pot for fear that the shearings might cave in and he returns it - as Rebbi Elazar ben Azarya does.

(a) Rav Huna permits the withdrawal of a plant from the earth of a plant-pot, provided it was pulled out and returned before Shabbos, so that, when one subsequently withdraws it on Shabbos, he will not move the earth (according to Tosfos - referred to by the Gilyon ha'Shas - the Isur here is not that of moving the earth, but of enlarging the hole).

(b) Shmuel requires the same condition with regard to sticking a knife between the rows of bricks of a building.

(c) The Mishnah in Kil'ayim specifically permits the withdrawal of a turnip from the ground, provided part of it is showing, so that it is not necessary to touch the Muktzah earth with one's hands. So we see that 'Tiltul min ha'Tzad' - moving Muktzah indirectly (in order to take what is not Muktzah) is permitted. This of course, disproves Rav Huna's contention that one needs to have pulled it out and re-placed it before Shabbos - precisely in order to avoid moving the earth in this way on Shabbos.

(d) Sticking a knife into a clump of tightly-packed palm-spikes is permitted, in spite of the possibility that one might come to peel off some of the bark - which would constitute 'Memachek' (smoothening).

(a) The need for some of the leaves of the turnip to be protruding is in order to avoid touching the earth directly (as we already explained in 1c.).

(b) The Mishnah in Kil'ayim comes to inform us that, due to the fact that it did not take root, the turnip (or the radish) is permitted, and that neither the Isur of Kil'ayim, nor that of Shevi'is, nor that of Tevel will apply to it.

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