ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafShabbos 41
(a) If someone places his hand in front of the Makom ha'Milah (in order to
cover it), it is as if he is denying the covenant that Hashem made with
(b) Rebbi Avahu did so after the Tevilah, as he was coming up from the
river, when it is a matter of Tzeni'us.
(c) Other Amora'im used to bend over in order to cover the Makom ha'Milah,
when coming up from the river, after they had Toveled.
(a) It is forbidden to touch the Mekom ha'Milah because the heat will cause
one to emit Keri - it is as if he brought another flood to the flood.
(b) It is possibly permitted to touch the Mekom ha'Milah when going to
Tovel in a river, because the fear of the river will prevent him from
having the sort of thoughts that lead to an emission.
(c) The Mishnah writes if a group of non-Jewish armed soldiers enter the
city, then all open barrels of wine are forbidden, because we suspect that
they helped themselves to their contents. But that is only if they enter in
time of peace; in time of war, all the barrels - even the open ones - are
permitted, because we presume that they are of afraid of being
court-marshaled for laxness. So we see that fear has the power to constrain
a person from doing what he would otherwise do naturally; likewise, in our
case, it will prevent him from having bad thoughts.
(a) Rebbi Zeira learnt from Rav Yehudah (who ordered his servant in Lashon
ha'Kodesh, to bring him 'soap' and a comb), that it is permitted to speak
Divrei Chol in Lashon ha'Kodesh, in a bathhouse; and that one should make a
point of drinking some of the Mikveh water.
(b) According to Rebbi Zeira, "Bavelah Yavo'u, ve'Sham Yihyu" refers, not
to the Jewish people, but to the Holy vessels of the Beis ha'Mikdash.
(a) The Beraisa writes ...
1. ... 'Achilaso Dam, ve'Zehu Techilas Choli Me'ayim' - about someone who
eats, but does not drink.
(b) Someone who bathes, is advised to drink some of the water, to douse
himself with cold water and to annoint himself with oil.
2. ... 'Achilaso Merakeves, ve'Zehu Techilas Rei'ach Ra' - about someone
who eats, when he needs to relieve himself.
(a) A 'Muliar ha'Garuf' is a hot-water urn, with its own built-in coal
section at the side. An 'Antichi' is a similar type of urn, but whose coal
section is underneath rather than at the side.
Rav Ada bar Masna explains the Mishnah 'ha'Meicham she'Pinehu' etc., to
mean that if one emptied a boiling kettle of all its water, it is forbidden
to pour into it a small amount of water( which will boil), only a lot of
water (which will only become warm).
(b) It is permitted to use a 'Muliar ha'Garuf' on Shabbos, because, due to
the fact that the coals are at the side, they do not *increase* the heat of
the water, only *retain* it. Whereas the Antichi, whose coals are directly
underneath the water, actually becomes hotter. Therefore, Chazal forbade
one to use it on Shabbos.
(c) A 'Bei Kiri' is an oven with a hole near the area where the coals are
placed, into which one places the water to be heated. The 'Antichi', in
Rabbah's opinion, does not increase the heat of the water, but the 'Bei
Kiri' *does*, because a. the walls of the 'Bei Kiri' are thick, and b.
because it is used all week - on account of these two points, the heat is
more intense, and that is why Chazal forbade it to be used on Shabbos.
(d) 'Nechushtah' means its base.
(e) Rashi's Rebbes translate 'Nechushtah' as copper (the Gemara is proving
that an 'Antichi' is a copper urn and not an earthenware stove. According
to Rashi's Rebbes, the Beraisa, which is describing a 'Muliar', should have
written 'Mayim Milema'alah, ve'Gechalim Milematah' rather than 'Mayim
Mibifenim, ve'Gechalim Mibachutz'. And besides, the word 'Nechushtah' used
by the second Beraisa, means 'base' and not 'copper', as his Rebbes
(a) 'Metzaref' is the process of strengthening metal vessels. After they
have been intensely heated, one pours cold water into them . It is
forbidden on Shabbos because it is a branch of 'Makeh ba'Patish' - e.g.
putting the finishing touches to a vessel.
(b) Someone who pours a little cold water into a boiling pot on Shabbos has
not transgressed Metzaref, because he had not the least intention of being
Metzaref the pot (nor is it 'Pesik Reisha' - inevitable - in which case
Rebbi Shimon agrees that 'Davar she'Ein Miskaven' is forbidden. See Tosfos
(a) Abaye disagrees with Rav Ada bar Masna's explanation on the grounds
that our Mishnah does not write 'ha'Meicham she'Pinah *Mimenu* Mayim' etc.,
but 'ha'Meicham she'Pinei*hu*' etc.
(b) He therefore interprets the Mishnah to mean, that if one removed the
full pot from the stove, one may pour a *lot* of water into the boiling
water that is in the pot, but not a *little*. (Had he emptied the pot of
its boiling contents, he maintains, it would have been forbidden to pour
cold water into it at all - at least, it would be, if one filled it to the
top [see Tosfos Yeshanim, in the left-hand margin]).
(c) The author of the Mishnah, who forbids pouring cold water into the
empty pot - even though he did not intend to make Tziruf, has to be Rebbi
Yehudah, who renders someone who performs a 'Davar she'Ein Miskaven'
(a) When Rav said 'Lo Shanu Ela Lehafshir, Aval Letzaref, Asur', he cannot
have meant this literally, because then, how would we explain the opinion
of Shmuel, who says 'Afilu Letzaref Nami Mutar'? How can Shmuel permit
Tziruf, which is a Melachah, as we explained earlier?
(b) What Rav must therefore have meant is that 'Shiur Lehafshir' is
permitted. In other words, he learns like Rav Ada, who explains the Mishnah
to mean that he emptied the water from the pot; Like Rav Ada, he permits
pouring a lot of water which will only warm it up, but unlike Rav Ada, he
also permits filling the pot with cold water, which is the Shiur Letzaref,
but only to pour in a large amount of water which does not make Tziruf -
i.e. not to the top. Whereas Shmuel permits even Shiur Tziruf, provided he
does not have the intention of making Tziruf.
(c) Rav holds like Rebbi Yehudah (that 'Davar she'Eino Miskaven' is Asur);
Shmuel holds like Rebbi Shimon (that it is Mutar), as we learnt above a
number of times (see 40a).