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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 41



(a) If someone places his hand in front of the Makom ha'Milah (in order to cover it), it is as if he is denying the covenant that Hashem made with Avraham.

(b) Rebbi Avahu did so after the Tevilah, as he was coming up from the river, when it is a matter of Tzeni'us.

(c) Other Amora'im used to bend over in order to cover the Makom ha'Milah, when coming up from the river, after they had Toveled.

(a) It is forbidden to touch the Mekom ha'Milah because the heat will cause one to emit Keri - it is as if he brought another flood to the flood.

(b) It is possibly permitted to touch the Mekom ha'Milah when going to Tovel in a river, because the fear of the river will prevent him from having the sort of thoughts that lead to an emission.

(c) The Mishnah writes if a group of non-Jewish armed soldiers enter the city, then all open barrels of wine are forbidden, because we suspect that they helped themselves to their contents. But that is only if they enter in time of peace; in time of war, all the barrels - even the open ones - are permitted, because we presume that they are of afraid of being court-marshaled for laxness. So we see that fear has the power to constrain a person from doing what he would otherwise do naturally; likewise, in our case, it will prevent him from having bad thoughts.

(a) Rebbi Zeira learnt from Rav Yehudah (who ordered his servant in Lashon ha'Kodesh, to bring him 'soap' and a comb), that it is permitted to speak Divrei Chol in Lashon ha'Kodesh, in a bathhouse; and that one should make a point of drinking some of the Mikveh water.

(b) According to Rebbi Zeira, "Bavelah Yavo'u, ve'Sham Yihyu" refers, not to the Jewish people, but to the Holy vessels of the Beis ha'Mikdash.

(a) The Beraisa writes ...
1. ... 'Achilaso Dam, ve'Zehu Techilas Choli Me'ayim' - about someone who eats, but does not drink.
2. ... 'Achilaso Merakeves, ve'Zehu Techilas Rei'ach Ra' - about someone who eats, when he needs to relieve himself.
(b) Someone who bathes, is advised to drink some of the water, to douse himself with cold water and to annoint himself with oil.
(a) A 'Muliar ha'Garuf' is a hot-water urn, with its own built-in coal section at the side. An 'Antichi' is a similar type of urn, but whose coal section is underneath rather than at the side.

(b) It is permitted to use a 'Muliar ha'Garuf' on Shabbos, because, due to the fact that the coals are at the side, they do not *increase* the heat of the water, only *retain* it. Whereas the Antichi, whose coals are directly underneath the water, actually becomes hotter. Therefore, Chazal forbade one to use it on Shabbos.

(c) A 'Bei Kiri' is an oven with a hole near the area where the coals are placed, into which one places the water to be heated. The 'Antichi', in Rabbah's opinion, does not increase the heat of the water, but the 'Bei Kiri' *does*, because a. the walls of the 'Bei Kiri' are thick, and b. because it is used all week - on account of these two points, the heat is more intense, and that is why Chazal forbade it to be used on Shabbos.

(d) 'Nechushtah' means its base.

(e) Rashi's Rebbes translate 'Nechushtah' as copper (the Gemara is proving that an 'Antichi' is a copper urn and not an earthenware stove. According to Rashi's Rebbes, the Beraisa, which is describing a 'Muliar', should have written 'Mayim Milema'alah, ve'Gechalim Milematah' rather than 'Mayim Mibifenim, ve'Gechalim Mibachutz'. And besides, the word 'Nechushtah' used by the second Beraisa, means 'base' and not 'copper', as his Rebbes interpret it.

6) Rav Ada bar Masna explains the Mishnah 'ha'Meicham she'Pinehu' etc., to mean that if one emptied a boiling kettle of all its water, it is forbidden to pour into it a small amount of water( which will boil), only a lot of water (which will only become warm).




(a) 'Metzaref' is the process of strengthening metal vessels. After they have been intensely heated, one pours cold water into them . It is forbidden on Shabbos because it is a branch of 'Makeh ba'Patish' - e.g. putting the finishing touches to a vessel.

(b) Someone who pours a little cold water into a boiling pot on Shabbos has not transgressed Metzaref, because he had not the least intention of being Metzaref the pot (nor is it 'Pesik Reisha' - inevitable - in which case Rebbi Shimon agrees that 'Davar she'Ein Miskaven' is forbidden. See Tosfos d.h. 'Meicham').

(a) Abaye disagrees with Rav Ada bar Masna's explanation on the grounds that our Mishnah does not write 'ha'Meicham she'Pinah *Mimenu* Mayim' etc., but 'ha'Meicham she'Pinei*hu*' etc.

(b) He therefore interprets the Mishnah to mean, that if one removed the full pot from the stove, one may pour a *lot* of water into the boiling water that is in the pot, but not a *little*. (Had he emptied the pot of its boiling contents, he maintains, it would have been forbidden to pour cold water into it at all - at least, it would be, if one filled it to the top [see Tosfos Yeshanim, in the left-hand margin]).

(c) The author of the Mishnah, who forbids pouring cold water into the empty pot - even though he did not intend to make Tziruf, has to be Rebbi Yehudah, who renders someone who performs a 'Davar she'Ein Miskaven' Chayav.

(a) When Rav said 'Lo Shanu Ela Lehafshir, Aval Letzaref, Asur', he cannot have meant this literally, because then, how would we explain the opinion of Shmuel, who says 'Afilu Letzaref Nami Mutar'? How can Shmuel permit Tziruf, which is a Melachah, as we explained earlier?

(b) What Rav must therefore have meant is that 'Shiur Lehafshir' is permitted. In other words, he learns like Rav Ada, who explains the Mishnah to mean that he emptied the water from the pot; Like Rav Ada, he permits pouring a lot of water which will only warm it up, but unlike Rav Ada, he also permits filling the pot with cold water, which is the Shiur Letzaref, but only to pour in a large amount of water which does not make Tziruf - i.e. not to the top. Whereas Shmuel permits even Shiur Tziruf, provided he does not have the intention of making Tziruf.

(c) Rav holds like Rebbi Yehudah (that 'Davar she'Eino Miskaven' is Asur); Shmuel holds like Rebbi Shimon (that it is Mutar), as we learnt above a number of times (see 40a).

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