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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 40



(a) Rav permitted one to use water that was heated on Erev Shabbos, to be used for washing even one's whole body, limb by limb (as long as he did not enter a bath to bathe his entire body at once.

(b) He explains the words 'Aval Lo Kol Gufo' to mean - not all of his body at once (but limb by limb is permitted).

(c) According to Shmuel, Chazal only permitted one to wash his head, his arms and his legs, like the Beraisa expressly writes.

(d) The Halacha must be like Shmuel in this case, because there is a Beraisa which specifically forbids one to wash one's body limb by limb, even with water that was heated on Erev Shabbos.

(a) Rabbah presents Rav's opinion like this: one may, he says, wash one's entire body with water that was heated on Erev Shabbos, provided he leaves one limb unwashed.

(b) We cannot explain the Beraisa, which permits the washing of one's head, arms and legs, to mean that is permitted to wash one's body limb by limb, like the head, the arms and the legs, because, in this version, Rav himself does not require limb by limb - so why does the Beraisa write 'his head, his arms and his legs' - unless it is to exclude any other part of one's body, a Kashya against Rav?

(c) Abaye did not understand why Rav Yosef asked him whether Rabbah ruled like Rav or Shmuel in the above Machlokes; firstly, because Rav himself was disproved from a Beraisa; secondly, because (had Rabbah *not* been disproved) he always followed the opinion of Rav (with the exception of the three cases that we learnt above (on 22a) - that one may take Tzitzis from one garment to put on another, that one may kindle one Chanukah -light from another and that the Halachah is like Rebbi Shimon with regard to Davar she'Ein Miskaven).

(d) Firstly, Rav Yosef's query however, was perfectly justified; firstly, because he was not aware that Rav had been disproved; and secondly, because when Rabbah always followed Rav's rulings it was only le'Chumra, but not necessarily 'le'Kula - and in this case, Rav (before retracting) went le'Kula, to permit one to wash other lambs beside his head, arms and legs.

(a) a 'Merchatz she'Pakeku Nekavav me'Erev Shabbos', is a hot bathhouse whose holes they stopped up before Shabbos, to prevent the heat from entering on Shabbos.

(b) One is permitted ...

1. ... to bathe in that bathhouse immediately after the termination of Shabbos.
2. ... If one stopped it up on Erev Yom-Tov, one is even permitted to take a steam-bath in it on Yom-Tov, and to make Shituf in the outer chamber.
(c) According to Rebbi Elazar ben Azarya and Rebbi Akiva, the hot water was covered with planks, to avoid suspicion that maybe the water was heated on Yom-Tov.
(a) The reason that Chazal forbade bathing in hot water on Shabbos- even if the water was heated on Erev Shabbos - is because the bath-attendants began heating the water on Shabbos, and pretending that it had been heated on Erev Shabbos. However, they still permitted steam-baths.

(b) Then people began bathing on Shabbos (which the Chachamim had just forbidden), and saying that really they were just having a steam-bath. So they forbade that, too. But the hot springs of Teverya remained permitted ...

(c) ... until people began bathing in water that had been heated with fire, pretending to have bathed in water that was heated in the hot springs of Teverya. Then they forbade that as well. However, when they saw that this was too dufficult for the community to bear, they rescinded this latter decree - and the hot springs of Teverya remained permitted.




(a) We learnt above, that Chazal forbade steam-baths because of people who would take a bath and pretend that they had only had a steam-bath. Now these people had transgressed no more than an Isur de'Rabbanan, yet Chazal refer to them as 'Ovrei Aveirah', from which we can derive that it is permitted to call someone who transgresses an Isur de'Rabbanan - 'a sinner'.

(b) Once Chazal had forbidden steam-baths, they forbade one even to walk in the bathhouses of the villages, because, due to their small size, it was inevitable that, even by walking in them, one would sweat, and experience the effect of a steam-bath. However, they did not extend this prohibition to the bathhouses of the towns, which were much larger, and where the steam was therefore not so concentrated.

(c) Someone who wishes to both warm himself beside a fire, and to wash himself down with cold water, must take care to do that in the reverse order, because once he has washed himself down, he is not allowed to stand in front of a fire - since he will be heating the cold water that remain on his body.

(a) Someone who has stomach-pains, may place a hot towel on his stomach on Shabbos.

(b) He may not, however, place there a container of hot water, because the water may spill, causing him to transgress the prohibition of bathing on Shabbos. But besides this, it is forbidden - even during the week - because of the danger of burning oneself.

(c) According to the Tana Kama, one is permitted to place a flask of cold water beside a fire on Shabbos, provided he only leaves it there long enough for the water to become warm, and no longer.

(a) Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel requires the woman to smear oil on her hand, and to warm her hand by the fire before smearing the oil on her young son.

(b) According to the first opinion in the Tana Kama, it is permitted to heat oil in front of a fire even to the point of Yad Soledes Bo, because oil cannot be cooked.

(c) 'Yad Soledes Bo' means that as the hand gets close to the source of heat, it becomes so hot that he recoils in anticipation of getting burnt. The Gemara gauges the Shiur by the temperature at which a baby's stomach gets scalded (It is doubtful though, that this is the method that was practically used).

(d) The Tana Kama holds that there is no cooking with regard to oil, however hot it becomes; whereas according to Rebbi Yehudah, oil can be cooked, but only when it reaches the heat of 'Yad Soledes Bo', not just when it gets warm.

(e) Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel also holds that cooking is applicable to oil, but that it is already considered cooked when it becomes warm.

(a) According to the second Lashon, the Tana Kama is more stringent than Rebbi Yehudah - he holds that not only is cooking applicable to oil, but when it gets warm, it is considered cooked - like Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel however, permits warming the oil in an unusual way, whereas the Tana Kama does not.

(b) The bathhouse that Rebbi entered was that of the hot springs of Teverya, in which it was permitted to bathe, as we learnt earlier.

(c) Rav Yitzchak learnt from Rebbi (who told him that he must first take out water into a container, before he would be permitted to pour in the oil), that cooking is applicable to oil; that if the oil becomes warm it is already considered cooking (because he only wanted to warm the water in the first place; and that a Kli Sheni does not cook.

(d) The Gemara asks how Rebbi could discuss a Halachah in the bathhouse, where even *thinking* (holy thoughts) is forbidden;

(a) No! It makes no difference in which language one says or thinks the Divrei Torah: Divrei Kodesh in a foreign language are forbidden, whereas Divrei Chol in Lashon ha'Kodesh are permitted. In other words, the criterion is not *the language* which is being spoken, but *the contents* of one's speech.

(b) Rebbi's instructions to Rav Yitzchak bar Avdimi was not just teaching a Halachah, but was in order to prevent him from performing an Isur, which is permitted in a bathhouse. In fact, even Rebbi had a precedent in Rebbi Meir, who did exactly the same with a Talmid of his, who was about to pour oil into the bath-water.

(c) Washing the floor (just like sweeping it) is forbidden because one may come to fill in holes and grooves in the process of washing it.

(d) When Ravina said that one is Chayav for cooking in the hot springs of Teverya, he meant that he receives Makas Mardus (like saying 'Chayav de'Rabbanan', although normally, we understand 'Chayav' (in the context of Shabbos) to mean either 'Chayav Kares' (be'Meizid) or Chayav to bring a Korban Chatas (be'Shogeg).

(a) Chazal forbade swimming in a river, because one may come to make oneself a life-belt (similar to the decree of not playing instruments, because one is likely to repair or tune it when necessary).

(b) Swimming in a pool in a courtyard (or garden) is permitted provided it is sufficiently deep at the side that one cannot stand in it - because if it is not, then one is liable to stir up mud as one climbs of the pool, a form of kneading for which one is Chayav on Shabbos. Alternatively, if it does *not* have steep banks at the side it is permitted, because it is not similar to a river, which Chazal forbade (for the reason mentioned above, a reason which is not applicable in such a pool).

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