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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 35



(a) In the Din of dusk, Rabbah's Shiur is the larger, and Rav Yosef's, the smaller; but with regard to the Din of a beehive, which (like all large vessels above a certain size) does not have the Din of a vessel on Shabbos, and is Muktzah. Rabbah gives the smaller Shiur by which a beehive is no longer considered a vessel, and Rav Yosef the larger - according to Rabbah, a beehive of two Kur (sixty Sa'ah) is still considered a vessel, but one of three is not; whereas according to Rav Yosef, one of three Kurim is still considered a vessel, one of four is not.
(b) When Abaye asked Rabbah about carrying a beehive on Shabbos, he would not even permit him to carry one of *two* Kur, because when it came to the crunch, Rabbah ruled like the Tana in Kelim, who rules that beehives are not subject to Tum'ah if they hold forty Sa'ah of liquid, which is the equivalent of two Kur of solid content, because then, they are not considered vessels.
(c) A 'Bor Sefinah Alexanderis' is a water-tank of an Alexandrian boat.
(a) If the above vessels did not have a base, they would not receive Tum'ah anyway, since all types of wood etc., are compared to sack, which only receive Tum'ah when they are receptacles (but are Tahor when they are flat). The Chidush of the Mishnah in Kelim is that nevertheless (in spite of the fact that they are receptacles), they are not Mekabel Tum'ah above a certain size.

(b) The Mishnah is dealing with the category of wooden vessels, as we have just explained, which are round like the Yam shel Shlomoh (in which the Kohanim Toveled in the Beis Hamikdash),

(c) 've'Hem Machzikos Arba'im Sa'ah be'Lach, she'Hen Kurayim be'Yavesh' teaches us that the 'Godesh' (the excess overflow - the heap that one piles on top of the produce that one is selling, is one third) - see Tosfos Eruvin quoted in the Mesores ha'Shas, who explains the ramifications of this statement.

(a) Rava explained that 'Kol Zeman she'Penei Mizrach Ma'adimin', does not mean 'as long as *the East* is red', but as long as the 'face' which makes the East red, is red' - i.e. the West.

(b) Like a window, explains the Gemara, which lets in the sun's rays, to light up the opposite wall.

(a) One can also determine Rebbi Nechemya's dusk period by leaving the sun at the top of Mount Karmel, and then going down to Tovel - as he comes up, night will fall.

(b) Someone who looks down from the top of Mount Karmel into the Sea, is likely to see a round rock in the shape of a sieve; he will be looking at the Well of Miriam. (Rashi in Bamidbar 21:19) quotes a Medrash Tanchuma, who, using almost the same wording as our Gemara, writes that Miriam's well can be seen in the Sea of Teverya - the Kineres - [see also Rabeinu Chananel, here]. The 'Tabur ha'Aretz' explains that they used to call the Mountain known as the Yeshimon - 'the Karmel', and that *that* is the Mount Karmel referred to in our Gemara. It makes far more sense, for a number of reasons, to learn both this Gemara and that of Rebbi Nechemya in the previous question, that way.)

(c) Miriam's well was unique in that it was the only roving well in the world.

(d) Nevertheless, it was not considered a vessel, and was therefore Tahor.

(a) When Shmuel said that the Kohanim Tovel during the dusk period of Rebbi Yehudah, he cannot have meant according to Rebbi Yehudah. Why not? Because the dusk period of Rebbi Yehudah according to Rebbi Yehudah, is a Safek night (and the Kohanim are obligated to Tovel by day)?

(b) Shmuel must be referring to the dusk period of Rebbi Yehudah, but according to Rebbi Yossi. The Chidush is that Rebbi Yossi's Bein ha'Shemashos begins only after Rebbi Yehudah's ends, and that someone who therefore Tovels during Rebbi Yehudah's dusk, has, in the eyes of Rebbi Yossi, Toveled by day.
(otherwise, how could the Tevilah be effective)?

(c) When Rebbi Yochanan rules like Rebbi Yehudah regarding Shabbos, he means that, although he is not sure whether to follow the opinion of Rebbi Yossi or of Rebbi Yehudah, he takes the strict view like Rebbi Yehudah regarding Erev Shabbos. Consequently, someone who does Melachah after sunset (according to Rabbah) or from the time that the Eastern horizon becomes dark (according to Rav Yosef), is Chayav to bring an Asham Taluy (like one brings for any other Safek Kares).

(d) When Shmuel rules like Rebbi Yossi regarding Terumah, he cannot be referring to Tevilah, to say that we have to be strict and forbid the Kohanim to Tovel during Rebbi Yossi's dusk period. Why not?
Because that would imply that they have to Tovel during Rebbi Yehudah's dusk period. But that is impossible, because, as we have already explained, the Kohanim must Tovel during the day, not at dusk?

(e) What he must therefore have meant is that the Kohanim are not permitted to eat immediately after the dusk period of Rebbi Yehudah, but have to contend with that of Rebbi Yossi; and it is only after the dusk period of Rebbi Yossi that they are permitted to eat Terumah.




(a) When only one star can be seen, it is still day; two stars are a sign of dusk, and three, of night. We are talking of medium size stars, not the large ones that can be seen by day, and not the small ones that can only be seen at night.

(b) A person who performed a Melachah on both the dusk periods of Erev Shabbos and of Motza'ei Shabbos, will be Chayav *a Chatas* because, one way or the other, he will have broken Shabbos.

(c) Rava instructed his Shamash to light Shabbos lights when the sun reached the top of the date-palms.

(d) On a cloudy day, one lights when the cocks are sitting on the beams and the ravens in the field, or when 'Adani-grass', which always lean towards the sun, bends towards the West.

(a) According to Rebbi Nasan, the third Teki'ah was a signal to kindle the Shabbos -lights, according to Rebbi, to remove one's Tefilin.

(b) Six Teki'os means: Teki'ah, Teru'ah, Teki'ah; Teki'ah, Teru'ah, Teki'ah.

(c) After the third Teki'ah, they would wait long enough to fry a small fish or to stick bread in the oven, before blowing the second set of three blasts.
(The Rosh in Si'man 24, proves from here that bringing in Shabbos does not depend on lighting the Shabbos -lights, since, after kindling the Shabbos-lights, they would still roast a fish. The Ran however, rejects this proof)

(d) They began blowing so early in order to bring in Shabbos slightly before the Sheki'ah, because of the obligation to add a little to the Shabbos - i.e. to begin the Shabbos a few minutes earlier.

(a) According to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel's testimony, the Babylonians would blow the second set of three in the form of Teki'ah, Teki'ah, Teru'ah.

(b) Those working closer to town were not permitted to enter straight-away, so that the townspeople would not suspect those who worked further out away, and who came in a little later, of not having stopped work immediately. So Chazal instituted that they should all come into town together.

(a) The second Teki'ah was a signal to put up the shutters and close the shops.

(b) Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina proves that there must have been some leeway after the sixth blast from the fact that the blower must have had time to take his Shofar (which is Muktzah once Shabbos enter) home.

(c) If one has to contend with the Tokei'a taking his Shofar home, asks the Gemara, then one would have to give different time allowances for different people, since it will depend on where each particular Tokei'a lives ('Im Ken, Nasata Devarecha le'Shiurin'!), and we do not find Chazal giving different Shiurim to suit different individuals?

(d) So we must say that they arranged a discreet place there where he blew, for the Tokei'a to hide his Shofar after he had finished with the Teki'os.

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