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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 24



(a) Since Chanukah is only mi'de'Rabbanan, its mention in Birchas ha'Mazon is not obligatory.

(b) Rav Sheshes told Rava's family (when Rava wanted to insert 'Al ha'Nisim' before 'u'Venei') that Birchas ha'Mazon is no different than Tefilah, where we say 'Al ha'Nisim' in 'Birchas ha'Hoda'ah'.

(c) It is obvious that 'Al ha'Nisim' in Tefilah is obligatory, since the main Takanah of Chanukah was 'Hallel ve'Hoda'ah', as we learnt above (which is the main objective of Tefilah, which is not the case with Birchas ha'Mazon, whose main objective is to thank Hashem for *the bread* that one ate, and it is not obligatory to eat bread on Chanukah. Also, because 'Pirsumei Nisa' is more prominent in Tefilah, which is Davened be'Tzibur, whereas one normally Benches privately - Tosfos d.h. 'Mahu'.)

(a) 'Ya'aleh ve'Yavo' on Rosh Chodesh may well be obligatory, even though 'Al ha'Nisim' on Chanukah, which is de'Rabbanan, is not, because it is d'Oraysa.

(b) The Gemara concludes like Rav, that 'Ya'aleh ve'Yavo' on Rosh Chodesh is obligatory, because this concurs with the Beraisa of Rebbi Oshaya, which rules that, any day on which Musaf is said (even if it is not a Yom-Tov), 'Ya'aleh ve'Yavo' in Benching is obligatory.

(c) This category also incorporates Chol ha'Mo'ed.

(d) The reason that we insert 'Ya'aleh ve'Yavo' in the Berachah of Avodah, is in the form of a prayer, asking Hashem to reinstate the Avodah, so that we will be able to sacrifice the appropriate Musaf offerings on that particular day.

(a) With the exception of Chanukah and Purim, which are days of thanksgiving, any special day on which Musaf is not said, is not mentioned at all in Birchas ha'Mazon (even during those occasions when one does eat - e.g. at night), and that includes Sheni, Chamishi, Ta'aniyos and Ma'amados.

(b) One does however, mention them in Tefilah - in the Berachah of Shomei'a Tefilah.

(c) 'Sheni va'Chamishi' in this context refers to 'Sheni va'Chamishi ve'Sheni' - the special fast-days which they would initiate if rain failed to fall by a certain date (as is described in Maseches Ta'anis). These series of fasts always followed that sequence i.e. Monday, Thursday and Monday.

(d) If one forgot 'Aneinu', it is not necessary to go back to 'Shema Kolenu'.

(a) Ma'amados were groups of Yisraelim (representing the whole of Yisrael vis-a-vis the Korban Tamid - as described in Ta'anis), who would gather in various centres around the country. Apart from a special Keri'as ha'Torah, they would also fast from Monday through Thursday.

(b) Originally, one would say 'Aneinu' the night before the fast began, even though one did not actually begin to fast until the morning. On the other hand, on the night following the fast, even someone who was still fasting, would no longer say 'Aneinu'.

(c) Nowadays, we do not say 'Aneinu' until Minchah of the actual fast-day, because of the possible contingencies that might force him to eat, in which case, he will have lied in his Tefilah (when he says 'be'Yom Tzom Ta'aniseinu').

(a) Some Amora'im maintain that 'Al ha'Nisim' should not be said at Musaf (on the days when Musaf is said), because Chanukah per se, is not a day on which Musaf is normally said.

(b) There is no proof for this from Rav, who holds that when Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos, no mention is made of Rosh Chodesh in the Berachos of the Haftorah, because there, the Haftorah is not read *at all* on Rosh Chodesh, whereas in our case, Tefilah as such, *is* said on Chanukah.

(c) We *can* however, compare our case to someone who read the Maftir at Minchah on Shabbos afternoon (as was customary in those days), and who would not mention Yom-Tov (when it coincided with Yom-Tov), because there is no Haftorah on Yom-Tov at Minchah, in spite of the fact that the Haftorah *is* said on Yom-Tov at Shachris.

(d) They used to Lein ten Pesukim from the Navi at Minchah on Shabbos. However the custom was discontinued, when the Persians stopped it, and was never resumed.




(a) Rebbi Yeshoshua ben Levi says, that when Yom Kipur falls on Shabbos, one inserts Shabbos at Ne'ilah, even though Ne'ilah is not said as such on Shabbos - because it is a day on which four Tefilos are said. Similarly, we should say 'Al ha'Nisim' at Musaf, since it is a day on which 'Al ha'Nisim' *is* said in the other Tefilos.

(b) We do not insert Yom-Tov in the 'Berachah Achas Me'ein Sheva' because in reality, we should not even say it on Shabbos either, and it is only to protect those who came late to Shul, and whose lives might be in danger (because of the demons), if they go home alone, that Chazal instituted it. Consequently, since this Chazaras ha'Shatz is not a major Tefilah, Yom-Tov is not mentioned in it.

(c) In those days, the Shuls were out in the fields (which explains the danger aspect mentioned here in our Sugya). Consequently, during the week, people would go home after work and Daven at home (so the Takanah of the 'Berachah Achas Me'ein Sheva' was unnecessary); and it was only on Shabbos that they would all congregate to Daven Ma'ariv in Shul.

7) Rav Berunah quoting Rav permits Chelev into which one has added a drop of Kasher oil. This is the opinion of either the Tana Kama or of the Chachamim (and that is the point in which they differ), but we do not know which of the two permits it.


(a) Rebbi Yishmael disqualifies tar because it is not Kavod Shabbos, and we shall see exactly what that means later.

(b) The Chachamim permit all oils except for those that the Tana in the previous Mishnah specifically forbade; whereas Rebbi Tarfon forbids all oils except for olive oil.

(a) If not for the various Limudim to the contrary (which will be clarified shortly), we would have permitted the burning of Kodshim on Yom-Tov, because of the principle 'Asei Docheh Lo Sa'aseh', Here too, the Asei of "ba'Esh Tisrofu"(Sh'mos) should override the La'av of "Kol Melachah Lo Ye'aseh Bahem" (Sh'mos).

(b) We learn from the Derashos as follows:

1. "Lo Sosiru Mimenu Ad Boker, ve'Ha'Nosar Mimenu Ad Boker, ba'Esh Tisrofu". The extra "Ad Boker" teaches us that what is left over on the first morning of Yom-Tov, must be burned on the second day - Chol ha'Mo'ed - but not on Yom-Tov.
2. "Olas Shabbos be'Shabbato" - but not an Olas Chol (even a Kasher one, Kal va'Chomer one that has to be burned because it is Pasul) on Shabbos.
3. "Hu Levado Ye'aseh Lachem" - '"Lachem", what is *for you* is permitted, but not what is *for Hashem'*.
(c) "Shabason" is an Asei, which means that Yom-Tov is now an Asei as well as a Lo Sa'aseh, and the Asei of burning Kodshim does not have the power to override an Asei and a Lo Sa'aseh.
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