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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 19



(a) We might have thought that, even though one may place food in front of one's animal on Shabbos, that is only because feeding one's animal is one's personal responsibility, but not in front of a non-Jew, whom one is not responsible to feed.

(b) Having placed the food in front of one's dog or in front of a non-Jew, he is no longer responsible to ensure that he does not carry it out into the street.
Note: This concession is restricted to foors, which the non0Jew is likely to eat there in the courtyard, but does not apply to other objects, which he is bound to take out into the street (Tosfos d.h. 'Nosnin').

(c) No! It is forbidden to feed an animal that is not one's own on Shabbos.

(a) It is forbidden to rent out one's vessels to a non-Jew on Friday, because it looks as if he is renting them out to be used on Shabbos (see Tosfos d.h. 'Lo Yaskir').

(b) One may not send letters with a non-Jew on Friday, unless they have fixed the price of payment beforehand; alternatively, according to Beis Hillel, on condition that the non-Jew is able to reach the house nearest the walls of his home town before Shabbos. (Beis Shamai requires both that they fix a price and that the non-Jew should have time to reach his house before Shabbos).

(c) Rebbi Yossi ha'Kohen was strict, and would never send a letter with a non-Jew - even on Wednesday or Thursday.

(a) It is forbidden to go out to sea within three days of Shabbos (from Wednesday and onwards).
Many reasons are given for this prohibition: See the Rosh, Siman 38, who explains that it is due to seasickness, which interferes with the obligation to enjoy Shabbos, and it takes three days to get used to the boat's movements.

(b)&(c) According to Rebbi, one may leave for a D'var Mitzvah, provided he asked the captain to drop anchor on Shabbos; in the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, this is not necessary.

(d) It is permitted to travel from Tzur to Tzidon by boat on Friday, since it is less than a day's journey, and it is therefore possible to arrive at one's destination before Shabbos.

(a) We learn from the Pasuk "Ad Ridtah", that, even though one does not initiate an attack against an enemy town between Wednesday and Shabbos, once the attack is already in progress, one is obligated to continue with it (even on Shabbos) until the city has fallen.

(b) Abaye told the laundry attendant who wanted to charge him the same price for washing colored clothes as white ones, that he was not as naive as the he thought, because Rabban Gamliel had already taught that white clothes take longer and are more difficult to clean than colored ones.

(c) Abaye advised anyone giving clothes to a laundry to be washed, to measure ones clothes before handing them in, and after retrieving them; - in this way, he will know that, should they come back larger than they were, he can charge the laundry for stretching his clothes; and if they come back shorter, he can charge them for shrinkage.




(a) Rebbi Yishmael holds that, once garlic etc., has been pressed, it is permitted to leave the beam lying on it, for the juice to seep automatically into a container on Shabbos.

(b) It is the Amora, Rebbi Elazar ben Pedas, who establishes our Mishnah like Rebbi Elazar ben Shamua, the Tana, who, in turn, permits the honey that seeps from the combs that were rubbed before Shabbos.

(c) Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina maintains that one cannot prove our Mishnah, where we are speaking about *liquid* that comes from food, from Rebbi Elazar, who permits honeycombs, which is a case of *food* from food.

(d) Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina was unaware of the Beraisa, in which Rebbi Elazar permitted even the juice of olives and grapes (liquid from food). That is why he established our Mishnah like Rebbi Yishmael, and not like Rebbi Elazar.

6) Rebbi Elazar does not establish our Mishnah like Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi, because, he holds like Rebbi Yochanan, who maintains that Rebbi Yishmael only permitted the vegetable juices if they were at least rubbed (before Shabbos) to the extent of 'Dichah' (pounding) - so that all that happens on Shabbos is that the process is completed; Consequently, he only argues with Rebbi Akiva, to take the lenient view, when the fruit only lacks grinding, but not when it still needs to be pound; and in our Mishnah, loading the beams on to the grapes or the olives, is the equivalent of 'Dichah'. Consequently, Rebbi Yishmael will agree with Rebbi Akiva, that it is forbidden to leave the beams on the fruit over Shabbos.


(a) Shmuel holds that the oil that remains in the corner of the olive-press and the mats of the workers are *not* Muktzah, because he holds like Rebbi Shimon, who only holds of specific types of Muktzah. Rav, on the other hand, holds like Rebbi Yehudah, who is more stringent in the realm of Muktzah.

(b) 'Hani Karchi de'Zuzi' means the pair of mats with which they would cover the goods for sale. Alternatively, it means the mats used in ships.

(c) By 'a goat for its milk, a lamb for its wool', we are referring to animals that one set aside for their commercial value, and which are not intended to be Shechted for their meat. Rav holds like Rebbi Yehudah, who considers the animals Muktzah on Yom-Tov, and therefore forbidden to Shecht; Shmuel follows the opinion of Rebbi Shimon, who does not hold of Muktzah in this case. (All the cases of Muktzah discussed until now are Muktzah because he pushed it away with his hands (into the storehouse i.e. an object that has been designated for business purposes).

(d) In spite of the fact that the Halachah is like Shmuel, Rebbi Chanina placed a Talmid in Cherem for ruling like him in Charta, because it was Rav's territory.

(a) It is permitted to lower the Pesach into the oven just before Shabbos, and we are not afraid that someone may stoke the coals, because the members of the group of the Korban Pesach are alert, and will stop each other from stoking.

(b) The 'Meduras Beis ha'Mokad' was the fire that was kept burning constantly in the room specially designated for that purpose. It was permitted to light the fire in the Lishkas Beis ha'Mokad just before Shabbos, because the Kohanim are alert, and we do not suspect them of stoking the coals.

(c) The Kohanim had to perform the Avodah barefooted, with the result that their feet would get very cold. Consequently, they needed a place where they could warm their feet.

(d) According to Rebbi Yehudah, it is permitted to light a coal fire just before Shabbos, because coal burns efficiently, and does not initially need to be stoked to create a nice fire.

9) The Tana Kama requires the entire crust to be formed before Shabbos comes in.

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