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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 18



(a) Someone who pours water on to a solid substance to make a dye has contravened the Melachah of Lishah - kneading.

(b) The Tana who is Mechayev the person who adds the water even though he did not mix them, is Rebbi.

(c) We know that Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah is lenient even by two ingredients which do not mix together, from the Beraisa where he exempts even someone who poured water on to ashes, even though water and ashes hardly make a good mixture.

(d) We have learnt two Beraisos, one speaks of 'Afar' and the other, of 'Efer'. Since the two Beraisos were not learnt together, it is possible that Rebbi Yossi said his Din by 'Afar', dust, which does mix well (and the Beraisa which quotes 'Efer', really means 'Afar' - only that particular Tana referred to Afar as'Efer'. Consequently, we have no proof that Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah is lenient even by things that do not mix well. Perhaps there, he will agree with Rebbi - that he is Chayav just for pouring the water.

(a) Rabbah maintains that, that although there is nothing wrong with vessels performing all one's work on Shabbos, the one exception is that of a mill, which makes a noise (and which the Rabbanan therefore forbade, because it is not in the spirit of Shabbos, or because people will *think* that he is desecrating Shabbos). According to some Meforshim, the Halachah is actually like Rabbah (See Tosfos, d.h. 've'Hashta').

(b) The Beraisa learns from "u've'Chol Asher Amarti Alechem Tishameru" the principle of 'Shevisas Keilim' - that one's vessels may not do on Shabbos whatever one may not do oneself, and that is why they prohibited placing the wheat in the mill close to Shabbos.

(c) The Beraisa permits the placing of sulfur and spices underneath silver vessels and clothes etc., because they do *not* perform an act - they work passively.

(d) The traps that Beis Hillel permit are those which do not perform an act, such as a Lechi (also known as a 'Chakeh') which catches the fish when the fish swallows it, and is then unable to release it; and Kukri, which catches the bird when the bird sticks its head in the narrow end and can then not extricate itself.

3) The Beraisa which permits one to place sulfur and spices under silver vessels clothes, speaks when he places them on the floor, and not in a vessel.



4) Beis Shamai permit one to leave beer fermenting in a barrel, a lamp burning, and meat burning on a spit-rod only if he has declared the barrel, the lamp and the spit-rod respectively, Hefker.


(a) If a woman placed a pot of Turmus beans or a baker a barrel of water in the oven shortly before Shabbos, intending them to boil the whole of Shabbos, one would not be permitted to use them on Motza'ei Shabbos until the time it would take for them to boil, in order that one should not benefit from the work (even though he will have contravened no more than an Isur mi'de'Rabbanan) that was performed on Shabbos.

(b) The author of this Beraisa could well be Beis Hillel, because, although Beis Hillel do not hold of 'Shevisas Kelim', they nevertheless forbid one to leave food to cook on the bare flame, because he may come to stoke the coals.

(c) They are not however, concerned that one might stir the coals ...

1. ... in the case of the sulfur and the spices, because that would cause smoke to rise and spoil the silver vessels and the clothes.
2. ...in the case of stalks of flax, because the wind is bad for the bleaching flax, so he will not even venture to open the oven door.
3. ... in the case of wool to be dyed, because it is speaking when the pot has already been removed from the stove.
(d) Nor are we worried that he may stir the pot, because it speaks when the pot is also cemented shut - and by the time he opens it, he will remember that it is Shabbos.
(a) One is permitted to leave raw meat, and a fully-cooked pot in the oven (or on the stove - without a Blech) when Shabbos comes in, because, since the former, which is obviously intended for Shabbos morning, will be done by then, and the latter is done already, there is no reason to stoke the coals.

(b) One may leave a partially-cooked pot containing a piece of raw meat, in the oven, because the raw meat is a sign that he wants the pot only for the morning, and here too, it will not be necessary to stoke the coals.

(c) Rav Ashi permits a kid-goat even in an oven which is not cemented, because air is bad for the roasting kid, and we can be certain that he will not open the oven to stoke the coals. This concession is confined to meat that is roasting on an open flame, but not to meat that is cooking in a pot (see Tosfos, d'h. 'Bashil').

(d) According to Rav Ashi, the Mishnah, which forbids meat to be left in an oven close to Shabbos, must be speaking specifically about *ram's* meat being left in an oven which is *not* cemented shut?

7) Someone who stirs a boiling pot, even after it has been removed from the flame, transgresses the Isur of 'Bishul' (See also Tosfos. 'Dilma').


(a) According to Rav Ashi in the second Lashon, where even ram's meat is permitted in an oven which is not cemented, we will have to establish the Mishnah later on, by meat on open coals, which do not even require the opening of a door. (In this Lashon, Rav Ashi holds that, when the door of the oven is shut, we do not suspect that he will even open it to stoke the coals - see Tosfos d.h. 'Hasam'.)

(b) Rav Yirmiyah mi'Difti holds in this Lashon that it is forbidden to leave a kid-goat inside an oven which is not cemented, in case he forgets, opens the door and stokes the coals.

9) A raw pumpkin has the same Din as a kid's meat in the second Lashon, because it too, does not react kindly to fresh air, whilst it is being cooked. Consequently, one may leave it inside the stove close to Shabbos. Note: This concession applies only to meat etc., which is roasting on an open flame, but not if it is inside a pot, when the air can do it no harm (Rosh Siman 35, quoting Behag).

10) Rebbi Akiva argues with the Tana Kama, who quotes Beis Hillel as saying that the non-Jew must be able to reach the house nearest to the wall in his home town. According to him, Beis Hillel never said such a thing. What they said was that one may sell to a non-Jew etc., provided the non-Jew leaves the Jew-s house before Shabbos enters.


(a) According to Beis Hillel, as long as one is permitted to eat the Chametz, he is also permitted to sell it.

(b) Rebbi Yehudah holds that it is forbidden to sell Kutach ha'Bavli (a condiment containing bread) for the entire thirty days before Pesach, because, since it is eaten in the form of a condiment, it lasts a long time - and Rebbi Yehudah follows the opinion of Beis Shamai.

(c) The thirty days is due to the fact that one begins to Darshen the laws of Pesach thirty days before Pesach. Before that time, one is not required to take Pesach into consideration.

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