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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Shabbos 12



(a) We are not concerned that a person who walks out on Friday afternoon wearing his Tefilin might forget and walk with them in the street on Shabbos, because one is obligated to feel one's Tefilin at regular intervals. This will cause him to remember that he is wearing Tefilin, and he will take them off before Shabbos.

(b) The Tzitz contains only *one* Name of Hashem, yet we learn from the Pasuk in Shemos ("ve'Haya Al Mitzcho *Tamid*") that the Kohen Gadol should keep his mind on it constantly; how much more so Tefilin, where the Name of Hashem appears many times.

(c) 'Hilchesa Rabsa le'Shabsa' is said about the obligation to check one's clothes before Shabbos enters, to ensure that there is nothing there that he might carry into the street.

(a)&(b) The prohibition of de-lousing one's clothes on Shabbos is either because one might kill a louse (in which case the author of the Mishnah must be Rebbi Eliezer, in whose opinion, killing a louse carries with it a Chiyuv Chatas), or it is because of the fear that he might come to turn the wick (which is certainly the reason that one may not read by the light of a lamp). The difference between the two answers is in daytime, which will be forbidden according to the first reason, but permitted according to the second.

(c) True, the Beraisa, which writes 'Ein Polin, ve'Korin le'Or ha'Ner', implies that both are forbidden only 'le'Or ha'Ner'. But then, so does our Mishnah, which uses a similar expression, yet we contend with the possibility that 'Ein Polin' might be for a different reason; if so, we can say the same in the Beraisa, too.

(d) The Gemara quotes another Beraisa, which explicitly states 'Ein Polin le'Or ha'Ner', leaving no doubt as to the real reason for the prohibition.

(a) The people of Mechuza were spoilt, they did not work, and their clothes were therefore wide like those of the women. Consequently, distinguishing between them required scrutiny (unlike men's clothes of other communities, which differed radically from women's clothes and which did not need scrutiny).

(b) This applies only to the clothes of old women, which were shorter and which the men's clothes resemble, but not to the clothes of younger women, which are longer and wider, and which one would never confuse with men's clothes - even the men of Mechuza!

(c) It is also forbidden to vomit (Apiktozan) in the street. Both (that and de-lousing) are forbidden because of Kavod ha'Beri'os (human dignity).

(a) According to Aba Shaul, one may take the louse and throw it away, but on no account, may he roll it.

(b) The Tana Kama holds like the Chachamim of Rebbi Eliezer, that killing a louse is only an Isur de'Rabbanan. Consequently, one is permitted to roll it - because even if he does inadvertently kill it, he will have only have transgressed an Isur de'Rabbanan. Whereas Aba Shaul holds like Rebbi Eliezer, in whose opinion killing a louse is an Isur d'Oraysa. So Chazal forbade one to roll it, in case he inadvertently kills it.

(c) Although Rav Huna rules like the Tana Kama, that one may roll the lice and throw them away, but not kill them, the other Amora'im seem to hold like Beis Hillel, who permit one even to kill them as well.

(d) Rav Nachman instructed his daughters to throw them into a bowl of water, so that he could hear the death-throes of his enemies.

(a) Beis Shamai also prohibit comforting mourners and visiting the sick on Shabbos (because they make a person sad, and on Shabbos, one is not supposed to be sad). Beis Hillel permits.

(b) Beis Shamai forbid making a Shiduch, finding one's son a Rebbe or a teacher to teach him a trade, because of the Pasuk in Yeshayah "mi'Metzo Cheftzecha".




(a) When one enters the room where the sick person is, one says 'Shalom'!, and when one leaves the sick person's presence, one says 'Shabbos Hi mi'Liz'ok, u'Refuah Kerovah Lavo; ve'Rachamav Merubin ve'Shivsu be'Shalom'.

(b) We learn from Rebbi Yossi, in whose opinion one says 'ha'Makom Yerachem Alecha Besoch Cholei Yisrael', that when one prays for the recovery of a sick person, one should include him together with all the other sick people in Yisrael.

(a) Someone who comforts mourners or visits the sick, is bound to empathize with them, and one should not feel sad on Shabbos.

(b) The Rabbanan objected to 'Rachmana Yidkerinech li'Shlom', because Rav Yehudah has already taught us not to pray in Aramaic, since the angels who carry up our prayers to Heaven do not understand Aramaic.

(c) Rebbi Elazar however, was right. A sick person does not need angels, because Hashem is with him (and perhaps even supports him), and hears the prayers directly - And He (Kevayachol) certainly understands Aramaic!

(d) Since Hashem is with the sick person (at the head of his bed), one should not sit higher than he is e.g. on a bed or a chair (se Tosfos d.h. 'Lo').

(e) We can learn from "Hashem Yis'adenu" etc., that Hashem visits - perhaps even supports - a sick person.

(a) Chazal forbade one to read by the light of a lamp, irrespective of how high or how many stories up it is. They did not differentiate between heights (Lo P'lug).

(b) Two people are permitted to read by the light of a lamp if they are reading the same Parshah, because then the one will stop the other if he makes a move to turn up the wick. If they are reading in two different Parshiyos, then they are forbidden to do so.

(c) Even if two people wish to read one Parshah, they are forbidden to do so by the light of a bonfire, since (both because they are no longer sitting in such close proximity to each other, and because of the closeness of the logs), each one is less likely to notice what the other one is doing; nor will he have time to stop him, even if he does.

(d) An Adam Chashuv is not used to performing such tasks as turning up wicks, because he has servants who do it for him. Consequently, the concern that one might inadvertently turn up the wick, does not apply to him.

(a) Rebbi Yishmael ben Elisha claimed that *he* would read and not turn up the wick. However, when it came to the crunch, even *he* moved to turn the wick - others say, he actually turned it higher, and wrote in his ledger that, when Mashiach arrived, he would bring a Korban Chatas.

(b) Now surely, Rebbi Yishmael, who was the Kohen Gadol, was considered an Adam Chashuv, so why should the decree apply to him in any case? Moreover, the above incident casts doubts upon the wisdom of permitting prominent people to read by the light of a lamp. The answer however is, that, when it came to Torah-study, Rebbi Yishmael's keenness to learn was so strong, that he behaved like an ordinary person, and not like an Adam Chashuv.

(c) A short-term servant is permitted to examine vessels by the light of a lamp, because he does not scrutinize the vessels he is examining. Why not? Because he is not afraid that his master might find the vessels dirty; as opposed to a permanent servant, whose job is at stake.

(d) Even a permanent servant is permitted to examine vessels by the light of a paraffin lamp, because it smells unpleasant, and he is therefore unlikely turn it higher.

(a) According to the second of the Gemara, the Amora'im argue whether a short-term servant's examination of vessels by the light of an oil-lamp, is a Halachah which may be publicized, or whether it should be kept quiet, and permitted only discreetly.

(b) When Rav Asi's wife saw Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba's (short-term) servant examining vessels by the light of a lamp, she said to her husband 'But *you* don't do that'!

(c) 'Leave him alone', replied Rav Asi, 'He holds like his master'.

(a) The 'Chazan' is forbidden to read the Parshah just like everybody else. He is however, permitted to look over the beginning of each Parshah (e.g. Sheini,, Shelishi etc.), in order to be conversant with them. Then tomorrow, when the seven Keru'im are called up to the Torah, he will be able to help them to read and to Lein correctly, if necessary.

(b) According to one opinion, children (whose Rebbe is with them) are permitted to read by the light of a lamp, because in the presence of their Rebbe, they will not dare to turn up the wick without his permission.

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