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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

Introduction to Shabbos

Shabbos 2


1) The penalty for performing a Melachah on Shabbos is Sekilah (stoning) - if it is performed on purpose, and there are two witnesses and warning; Kareis (death before fifty) if there are not, and a Korban Chatas if it is performed by mistake - i.e. he forgot, or was unaware, that it was Shabbos, or that that Melachah was prohibited on Shabbos.


(a) Yetzi'os incorporates carrying something from a private domain (a Reshus ha'Yachid) to a public one (a Reshus ha'Rabim), and vice-versa. The reason that the Mishnah uses the Lashon 'Yetzi'os' (which infers the former), and not Hachnasos, or Hotza'os (which is more accurate - from a grammatical point of view) - is because the Pasuk, from which we learn the Isur of carrying, is "Al Yetzei Ish mi'Mekomo" (Sh'mos). Rashi d.h. 'Shetayim'. quotes a different Pasuk.

(b) 'Shetayim she'Hein Arba' means two min ha'Torah, which are four - when one adds the two de'Rabbanans.

(c) 'bi'Fenim' means for the man standing inside (whom the Mishnah describes as the rich man), and 'ba'Chutz, the man who is standing outside (the poor man).

(d) Before one can actually be Chayav on Shabbos, one has to do three things:

1. Make an Akirah (i.e. pick up the article);
2. transport it from one domain to another (The Isur of carrying four Amos in the street is not discussed here);
3. Make a Hanachah (i.e. put it down).
(a) The Ba'al ha'Bayis is Chayav if he either picks up the article from his house and places it into the hands of the poor man who is waiting outside (and whose hands are outside, too); or if he takes the article from the hands of the poor man (which are outside), and puts it down inside.

(b) Patur in this case, means permitted, though it usually means exempt from punishment, but nevertheless Asur (mi'de'Rabbanan). This is, because the recipient (the poor man, in our particular cases) has done nothing wrong (at least, not as far as Shabbos is concerned) - even mi'de'Rabbanan.

(c) In the case of 'Pashat he'Ani es Yado' ... 've'Natal Ba'al ha'Bayis mi'Tochah' ... the Ani is Patur, because he did not make the Hanachah; and the Ba'al ha'Bayis is Patur, because he did not make the Akirah.

(d) The 'four' incorporate only the one who, in each case, makes the Akirah (although those who make the Hanachah have also transgressed an Isur de'Rabbanan). His Isur is stronger, because he may come to complete the Melachah (whereas the one who makes the Hanachah only, cannot do so).




(a) The Torah specifically obligates someone who takes an oath which concerns *the future* (i.e. that he will do something good or something bad) to bring a Korban Olah ve'Yored should he break it (that is the 'Shetayim' referred to by the Mishnah in Shevu'os). The 'Arba' comes to include, not Isurim de'Rabbanan (as in our Mishnah), but the two equivalent cases of an oath which concern *the past* (e.g. that he ate, when really he did not; or that he did not eat, when really he did).

(b) The two 'Yedi'os ha'Tum'ah' mentioned directly by the Torah - again in connection with the Korban Olah ve'Yored - are: when someone ate Kodesh or entered the Mikdash, having forgotten that *he was Tamei* (when he later remembers, he is Chayav a Korban). The other two cases included in 'she'Hen Arba' (which the Torah includes in the word "ve'Ne'elam", twice mentioned superfluously) are:when he forgot, not that he was Tamei, but that *what he was eating was Kodesh* or that *he was now entering the Mikdash*. When he later remembers, he will be Chayav to bring a Korban.

(c) The initial Mar'os Nega'im are Se'eis (as white as white wool) and Baheres (white like snow), and the additional two are both contained in the word Sapachas - which means secondary: one secondary to Se'eis - like the outer membrane of an egg, the other, secondary to Baheres - like the lime used to mark the Heichal.

(a) If the Mishnah in Shevu'os is restricted to Avos, then how can it list four cases, when there are only a total of two (one Hotza'ah for the Ani, and one for the Ba'al ha'Bayis) which are Chayav? Nor can we answer that it lists two Avos of Chiyuv and two of Petur, since it must be similar to Mar'os Nega'im (the only case which is unanimously agreed upon - see Rashi d.h. 'Ha Dumya'), where all the cases listed are Chayav.

(b) Rav Papa therefore answers that our Mishnah, the main source for these Halachos, lists both the cases which are Chayav and those which are Patur, whereas the Mishnah in Shevu'os, which only lists Shabbos (and Nega'im), because of Shevu'os, only mentions the cases (both of the Av - Hotza'ah - and of the Toldah - Hachnasah) of Chiyuv, but not of Petur.

(c) Yetzi'os are considered Avos, because the Pasuk "va'Ya'aviru Kol ba'Machaneh", from which we learn the Isur of carrying from one domain to the other, implies carrying from the Reshus ha'Yachid to the Reshus ha'Rabim (since the Pasuk is telling Yisrael in the desert not to bring any more materials from their homes to the collecting place in the street) - According to Tosfos, who learns carrying from "Al Yetzei Ish" - 'Al Yotzi Ish', it is even clearer.
We include Hachnasos, because it is not logical to differentiate between carrying from a private domain to a public one, and vice-versa?

(a) The Mishnah in Kelal Gadol lists the Isur of carrying as 'ha'Motzi mi'Reshus li'Reshus'. What about 'ha'Machnis', which is also Asur? So we see, that the Tana also incorporates 'Machnis' in 'Motzi' (See Tosfos, who discusses the fact that Machnis is a Toldah, and the Mishnah in Kelal Gadol only lists Avos).
Our Mishnah also mentions 'ha'Motzi', and immediately goes on to discuss Hachnasah. Clearly then, the Tana incorporates Hachnasah in Hotza'ah.

(b) Rava explains that the Mishnah meant to write 'Reshuyos' - meaning that there are two domains in each of which there are two cases of carrying, making four.

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