THOUGHTS ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Rosh Kollel: Rav Mordecai Kornfeld
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1) PLANTING MULTIPLE SEEDS IN ONE "ARUGAH"
OPINIONS: How far apart must the different types of seeds be planted in one
Arugah in order to be permissible? Since a discernible division is
necessary between each type of seed, what distance serves to create this
visible difference? Furthermore, does "Rosh Tor" ("the top of a triangle"
which -- due to the contrast that it creates through the angle which
appears when it runs into a row of seeds planted in a different direction
-- serves to indicate that the rows of seeds are indeed separate from each
other) serve as an effective discernible division?
(a) RASHI maintains that since the seeds draw nourishment from the ground
up to 1 1/2 Tefachim away, and since one plant's nourishment must be kept
away from the nourishment of another type of plant, they must therefore be
a total of *3* Tefachim away from each other. If, however, they are planted
at angles to each other, the angle serves as a recognizable differentiation
(because of "Rosh Tor") and it is permitted to sow two rows close to each
other, even if the distance between them is less than three Tefachim.
(NOTE: All of the pictures printed in our Gemaras are slightly in error.
See Girsa section of the Background notes, and Graphics #2 and #3.)
(b) TOSFOS agrees that plants draw nourishment from the ground up to 1 1/2
Tefachim away, and that different types of plants must be kept 3 Tefachim
apart from each other. Tosfos argues with Rashi and maintains that the
distinction of "Rosh Tor" is not utilized for rows of seeds within an
Arugah (see Gemara top of 85b). Tosfos therefore draws the original 5-seed
Arugah differently (see previous Insight, and Graphic #2).
(c) The RAMBAM in Perush ha'Mishnayos (Kilayim 3:1) and BARTENURA explain,
too, that the seeds draw nourishment from the ground 1 1/2 Tefachim away.
However, they argue with Rashi and Tosfos and maintain that it is not
necessary to keep two different types of plants from drawing nourishment
from the same ground. It is only necessary to keep one plant from drawing
nourishment from the *other plant*. Thus, they need be separated only 1 1/2
Tefachim. They also permit "Rosh Tor" within an Arugah (like Rashi, and not
like Tosfos), and therefore they draw the Arugah differently (see Graphic
(d) The RASH in Kilayim (loc. cit.) also explains that the plant draws
nourishment from 1 1/2 Tefachim away and that it must be distanced only
from the other plant itself. He does not permit, however, "Rosh Tor" within
an Arugah (see Grahpic #2).
(e) The VILNA GA'ON says that whenever an Arugah is *filled* with one type
of seed (covering the entire 6-by-6 area of the Arugah), it is permitted to
plant other types of seeds on the outer sides of the Arugah (leaving the
corners fallow). A fully-planted Arugah is, in itself, a distinguishing
indication that this patch was planted separate from the rows of seeds
around it (because a 6-by-6 track is a separate piece of land that is
normally planted by itself). (See Graphic #2)
2) A FURROW IN THE GARDEN
OPINIONS: The Gemara asks if someone dug a "Telem" through the Arugah,
covering the length of the entire Arugah, is it "Mevatel the Shurah" or
not? The answer to the question is left as a Machlokes between Rav Sheshes
and Rav Ashi.
What is a "Telem," and what does it mean to be "Mevatel Shurah?"
(a) RASHI explains that a furrow ("Telem") was dug straight through the
middle of the Arugah, from one edge to the other. The question of the
Gemara is whether this furrow will be "Mevatel the Shurah," meaning *the
laws of Arugah*, so that it will no longer be considered an Arugah in order
to be permitted to plant five species of seeds there.
Rashi adds that seeds are planted in that furrow. This is problematic,
because if the furrow is being planted it is certainly forbidden to make
the furrow to begin with, for it is forbidden to plant more than five types
of seeds in the Arugah! It must be that Rashi understood that the furrow
was dug deeply into the ground, and since the seeds there grow on the
bottom of the furrow, below the level of the other seeds in the Arugah, it
is considered to be apparent that those seeds were planted separately from
the other seeds in the Arugah.
A field is land in which furrows are dug; an Arugah is land which is sown
directly, without digging furrows. The question the Gemara is whether this
furrow takes this piece of land out of the state of a garden patch and
turns it into a field. (It is not clear what exactly it is about the furrow
which turns this Arugah into a field. It seems to be because it is cut into
the ground, and not just planted overground from one end of the Arugah to
(b) TOSFOS explains that it has nothing to do with a furrow that is dug and
planted *in* the Arugah. Rather, the question of the Gemara involves a
furrow that is dug *around* the Arugah and is a Tefach deep. Is that enough
of a distinction to permit planting another Arugah next to this Arugah,
without having any additional space between the two?
The "Shurah" refers to the "Telem," or the ditch itself. The Gemara is
asking whether that Shurah is Batel (as if it does not exist) because of
the Arugah, or if that Shurah is not Batel and therefore serves to separate
the Arugah from another.