(Permission is granted to print and redistribute this material
as long as this header and the footer at the end are included.)


brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Rosh Kollel: Rav Mordecai Kornfeld

Ask A Question about the Daf

Previous daf

Shabbos 74


QUESTIONS: RASHI (DH sh'Ken Ani) explains that the Melachah of Kotesh, pounding, was done in the Mishkan and it is an Av Melachah. However, it is not counted in the Mishnah, explains Rashi, because the Mishnah counts those labors involved in "Sidura d'Pas" (making bread), and pounding is not considered an established part of Sidura d'Pas because poor people do not do it when they make their bread. Nevertheless, "it is an Av Melachah, included in the Melachah of Dash (threshing)."

(a) Rashi contradicts himself. He first writes that Kotesh is an Av Melachah, and then he writes that it is included in Dash!

(b) Rashi implies that there are forty Av Melachos! How can this be, when we see clearly from our Mishnah that there are no more than thirty-nine Melachos (see Gemara, 75b, that proves that there are the only 39 Melachos according to our Mishnah)?

(c) Why does Rashi have to mention "Sidura d'Pas" at all? The Gemara says that a poor person does not pound his bread, and therefore Kotesh is not in the Mishnah either because it is not considered a significant labor, or because it was not done in the Mishkan. Why does Rashi have to mention that it was not part of Sidura d'Pas? (MAHARSHA AND MAHARAM)

(d) Why does Rashi have to say that Kotesh *is* an Av Melachah but is not *counted* in the Mishnah? He should have said that since a poor person does not do Ketishah, it is not an Av Melachah altogether!

ANSWER: The RAMBAN cites Rashi as saying that Kotesh is not considered a significant labor since a poor person does not do it, and it is included in Dash (as we suggested in (d) above). Perhaps this is what Rashi, even in the text that we have, intends to say. When he says that Kotesh is an Av Melachah, he means to say only that it is in the category of forbidden Melachah on Shabbos for which one will be Chayav, but not that it is its own primary category of Melachah. (This is consistent with Rashi elsewhere. It is evident in numerous places that Rashi uses the term "Av Melachah" to refer not to a primary category, but to *any* form of labor for which one is Chayav on Shabbos, including a Toldah. See Insights 18:1). This answer questions (a), (b), and (d).

Concerning the third question (c), why Rashi mentions Sidura d'Pas, it must be that Rashi understands the Gemara like the Ramban: since a poor person does not do Ketishah, it is not considered a significant Melachah. Rashi, however, was bothered by Tosfos' question. Tosfos asks that Ketishah was performed in the Mishkan for the preparation of the *dyes*, and not merely to make bread. Why not regard it as an Av because it was needed for making dyes. Tosfos answers that a poor person even makes his *dyes* without pounding them. Rashi was bothered why the Gemara specifically mentions the *bread* of a poor person, and not his *dyes*.

To that he answers that since all of the Melachos listed in the first part of the Mishnah are referring to Sidura d'Pas, and the Gemara is now discussing Kotesh in the context of Borer and other bread-related Melachos, it must be that the Kotesh under discussion is that which is used in Sidura d'Pas. "Sidura d'Pas" has nothing to do with the reason why Kotesh is not mentioned in the Mishnah. Rashi is merely explaining why the Gemara focuses on bread ("since a poor person eats his *bread* without Ketishah") and does not mention the dyes. (M. Kornfeld -- see SEFAS EMES for a different explanation.)

OPINIONS: The Gemara cites a Beraisa that first states that Borer is permitted on Shabbos, and then states that Borer is forbidden and one is Chayav a Chatas for it. Five different resolutions are suggested in the Gemara to explain what the Beraisa means when it says that it is permitted to do Borer:
(a) It is permitted when done for use *on that day*
(b) It is permitted when only *half the Shi'ur* is separated
(c) It is permitted when done *by hand* ("b'Yad")
(d) It is permitted when one separates a *food* item from a *non-edible* item ("Ochel m'Toch Pesoles")
(e) It is permitted when done for immediate use ("l'Altar")
The Gemara unconditionally rejects the first two answers. Doing Borer for that day is forbidden and one is Chayav a Chatas, and "Chatzi Shi'ur" is also forbidden mid'Oraisa (although one is not Chayav a Chatas). Which of the other answers are accepted? What is the Halachah?

(a) TOSFOS (DH v'ha'Tanya) and the ROSH cite RABEINU CHANANEL, who says that all three of the latter conditions must be fulfilled in order for it to be permissible to do Borer on Shabbos (or more exactly, in order for this act not to be one of Borer).

(b) RASHI (DH v'ha'Tanya) appears to say that if it is done *immediately*, it is permissible, even when done with an instrument made for separating (such as Napah u'Kevarah).

HALACHAH: The Halachah follows the opinion of Rabeinu Chananel, as the SHULCHAN ARUCH (OC 319) writes, and three conditions are required -- b'Yad, l'Altar, and Ochel m'Toch Pesoles.

The REMA explains, citing Rabeinu Chananel, that "l'Altar" refers to any food being prepared for the meal that is about to come (even if it is not going to be consumed immediately).


Next daf


This article is provided as part of Shema Yisrael Torah Network
Permission is granted to redistribute electronically or on paper,
provided that this notice is included intact.
For information on subscriptions, archives, and other Shema Yisrael
Classes, send mail to daf@shemayisrael.co.il

Shema Yisrael Torah Network
Jerusalem, Israel

In the U.S.:
Tel. (908) 370-3344
Fax. (908) 367-6608

Toll free line for dedications: 1-800-574-2646