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Shabbos 71


OPINIONS: According to Abaye and Rava, if one sin is done twice in two different Ha'alamos the two acts are joined together even if the Ha'alamos are not identical types of Ha'alamah (e.g., one was "He'elem Shabbos," and one was "He'elem Melachos"). The Gemara says that Rebbi Zeira (or Rebbi Yirmeyah according to the alternate reading in the Gemara) was in doubt regarding this. Rebbi Zeira inquired if a person is Chayav to bring a Korban when he did a half of a Shi'ur of a Melachah forgetting that it was Shabbos, and then he did another half of a Shi'ur of Melachah when he remembered that the Melachah is forbidden. (In other words, do two half-Melachos join to make one full Melachah?).

What exactly was Rebbi Zeira in doubt about?

(a) RASHI (DH Milsa d'Peshita, DH Chalukin) explains that Rebbi Zeira was unsure about two situations -- whether two actions done during two types of Ha'alamos can combine (1) in a case when a person did half a Shi'ur of Melachah in each Ha'alamah, and (2) when a person did a *whole* Melachah in each Ha'alamah. Even though the case Rebbi Zeira asked about was a case when the person did half a Shi'ur of Melachah, he could have asked the same question when the person did a full Shi'ur of Melachah -- does the sinner need to bring two Korbanos, or does one Korban suffice? (See RAN)

(b) The RITVA, citing "Yesh Mefarshim," explains that Rebbi Zeira knew for certain that one is Chayav to bring two Korbanos if one does a full Shi'ur of the transgression in each Ha'alamah. That is why he did not ask what the Halachah is in that case. Rather, he asks about a case of half a Shi'ur of Melachah being done in each Ha'alamah because it may be necessary to have a stronger division to exempt one from a Korban when dealing with two half Melachos. Two half Melachos naturally attract and join to each other to form one complete Melachah, and therefore a strong division is needed to keep them separated.


QUESTION: Raban Gamliel states, "Ein Yedi'ah l'Chatzi Shi'ur." If a person eats half a Shi'ur of Chelev (half a k'Zayis), finds out about it, forgets and eats another half Shi'ur, he is Chayav to bring a Korban. The RITVA explains that a Yedi'ah (having realized that one committed a sin) is not significant and does not serve to separate two acts of a sin unless it follows a complete transgression. If it does not follow a complete transgression, it is ignored.

However, later on this Amud, Rebbi Yochanan is of the opinion that a Yedi'ah *does* serve to separate between two halves of a transgression. Rebbi Yochanan says that if a person sins by eating one and a half k'Zeisim of Chelev, and then realizes that he ate one k'Zayis of Chelev (but he does not yet realize that he ate an additional half k'Zayis), and then forgets and eats another half k'Zayis, the Yedi'ah that he had serves to divide the first half k'Zayis from the second, and he is *not* Chayav to bring an additional Chatas for the additional two half k'Zeisim that he ate. That is, even though there was no full Yedi'ah of the first half-Zayis to separate it from the second, nevertheless, the Korban from the first Zayis separates this half-Zayis (for which the Korban was *not* brought) from the next. It seems from this that it is *easier* to separate two half-Zeisim from each other, than to separate to Zeisim, which is diametrically opposed to Raban Gamliel's reasoning! Why does the Korban serve to separate one half-Zayis from the other in this case?


(a) In Rebbi Yochanan's case, a person sinned initially by eating one and a half k'Zeisim. When he designates a Korban for the k'Zayis, even though he does not remember the other half k'Zayis that he ate, that half k'Zayis *is covered by the Korban* that he brings on the full k'Zayis, since it is drawn after the Zayis that accompanied it. Since the half-Zayis was already forgiven, it cannot be combined with the later half-Zayis.

(b) Rebbi Yochanan's ruling is consistent with Raban Gamliel's opinion. In the case of Raban Gamliel, the person found out that he ate half a k'Zayis of Chelev. That knowledge does not qualify as a Yedi'ah, because it is not a Yedi'ah of a *full sin*. In Rebbi Yochanan's case, though, the Yedi'ah came after a complete sin (of one and a half Zeisim of Chelev), and therefore it is considered a Yedi'ah. It separates his first consumption of Chelev -- half k'Zayis included -- from the second half k'Zayis that he ate.
(M. Kornfeld)

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