THOUGHTS ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Rosh Kollel: Rav Mordecai Kornfeld
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1) PLACING FOOD INSIDE A "KIRAH" RIGHT BEFORE SHABBOS
QUESTION: Rav is quoted as saying that when our Mishnah says that one may
place food on a Kirah, it means only on *top* of the Kirah, but not
*inside* the Kirah, for placing food inside the Kirah is more stringent
than placing food atop the Kirah.
The Gemara says that if our Mishnah is like Chananyah, it makes sense why
it is forbidden to place food inside the Kirah (see below). But if our
Mishnah is like the Rabanan, there should be no difference between on top
of the Kirah and inside of the Kirah (because placing food atop the Kirah
is permitted only if the coals were cleared away or covered. But if the
coals were cleared away or covered, it should also be permitted to put the
food inside the Kirah!).
According to Chananyah, what is the difference between placing food inside
the Kirah and placing food on top of the Kirah? Rashi (DH Hayinu) explains
that since Chananyah permits Shehiyah even when the coals were not cleared
away, he cannot be permitting food to be placed inside the Kirah, because
the coals are still there and doing so would constitute performing Hatmanah
in a material that adds heat, which is forbidden (see Insights 34:1:a:3).
TOSFOS (DH Ela Iy) asks that placing food inside the Kirah cannot actually
be considered Hatmanah in coals, because we find that Chananyah permits
placing dough in an oven before Shabbos as long as there is time for its
surface to become crusted before Shabbos (20a). Placing food inside an oven
is apparently *not* considered Hatmanah in a material that adds heat. If
so, why is it forbidden to place food inside a Kirah according to
ANSWER: Tosfos answers that when the Gemara said that placing food inside
the Kirah is forbidden, it is referring to *Chazarah* *on* Shabbos, and not
Shehiyah before Shabbos. On Shabbos, it is forbidden to put a pot of food
back *inside* a Kirah because it looks too much like actual cooking (see
Insights to Shabbos 36:3:b).
2) HALACHAH: "SHEHIYAH"
OPINIONS: Chananyah and the Rabanan argue whether, right before Shabbos,
one may place food that is cooked k'Ma'achal Ben Derusai on top of a stove
whose coals are not cleared away or covered. What is the Halachah?
(a) RASHI (DH v'Rav Sheshes) and TOSFOS (DH Amar Rav Sheshes) in the name
of RABEINU CHANANEL write that the Halachah is like Chananyah, and one *is
permitted* to do Shehiyah and place food on a stove whose coals have not
been cleared away or covered as long as the food was precooked k'Ma'achal
HALACHAH: The SHULCHAN ARUCH (OC 253:1) cites both opinions of the
Rishonim. He first cites the opinion of the Rosh, Rif, and Rambam (b).
Then, the Shulchan Aruch cites the opinion of Rashi and Tosfos by saying,
"And there are those who say...." The BI'UR HALACHAH points out that the
fact that the Shulchan Aruch cited the opinions in this fashion shows that
he holds like the first opinion, and is inclined to be stringent.
(b) The ROSH (3:1) cites many Rishonim who say that it is *prohibited* to
do Shehiyah on an uncovered flame (included among them are the RIF and
RAMBAM). The Rosh is inclined to be stringent as well.
The Bi'ur Halachah adds that we should not reprimand one who is lenient and
relies on the opinion of Rashi and Tosfos; as the Rosh writes, "Because
there is a major argument as to how to rule in this matter, and the Jewish
People are very attached to the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos and will not
listen to us if we tell them to be stringent, therefore we should leave
them to practice their custom of relying on those who rule like
Chananhah." However, for oneself (as opposed to instructing others what to
do), one should be stringent and not do Shehiyah on an uncovered flame with
a food that is not completely cooked (or with a food that will improve in
taste the more it is cooked), unless there are extenuating circumstances
pressing him to do so, such as if guests showed up at one's home not long