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Shabbos Graphic #2a

Shabbos Daf 85a

(1) See Insights for a summary of the various opinions of the Rishonim concerning the distance of ground from which a plant draws nourishment, and whether "Rosh Tor" applies in an Arugah.
(2) This is a way of filling the entire field with Arugos, one next to the other (according to RASHI), or one at the corner of the other (according to the other Rishonim).
(3) According to RASHI, Shmuel is not concerned that one might fill up the entire sides of each Arugah (including the corners).
(4) (a) According to TOSFOS (and also, apparently, according to the RAMBAM and VILNA GA'ON), Shmuel utilizes "Rosh Tor" to permit planting Arugos in close proximity to each other, but he requires that the leaves from the plants of each Arugah be bent into their appropriate Arugah (this is what the Gemara means when it says "b'Noteh Shurah l'Kan v'Shurah l'Kan").
(b) The pattern of the seeds in each of the Arugos is identical to the pattern described earlier, in row #3 of the graphic.
(5) The pattern of each Arugah, according to every one of the Rishonim except for Rashi, is identical to the pattern depicted earlier, in row #1 of the graphic.
(6) According to the RASH, it suffices to distance each Arugah from the other by 1 1/2 Tefachim. Since the border between Arugos is one Tefach wide (and not two Tefachim, like Rashi and Tosfos maintain), Shmuel permits planting in adjacent Arugos by planting the seeds in the Arugah half a Tefach away from the border, in one of every two adjacent Arugos. In this manner one is able to fill his entire field with Arugos, and there is no fear that he will plant them too close together if he fills up the sides.
(7) The VILNA GA'ON in Shenos Eliyahu maintains that whenever an Arugah is completely filled with one type of seed (covering the entire 6-by-6 area of the Arugah), it is permitted to plant other types of seeds around the *outside* of the outer rim of the 6x6 Arugah (leaving the *corners fallow*). The reason is because a fully-planted Arugah is, in itself, distinct from all the surrounding rows of seeds (because a 6-by-6 plot stands out by itself from the rest of what is sown).

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