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Shabbos 83

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Rashi 83a DH Maskif Lah:
The words "Lashon Masa Mashma Lehu *she'Hisitu* Acherim"
should be "Lashon Masa Mashma Lehu *she'Hisitum* Acherim" (RASHASH)

[2] Rashi 83a DH Bein Acherim she'Hisitu Osan:
"v'Hachi Mashma Hen *v'Heseitan*"
The word "v'Heseitan" seems to be unnecessary (M. Kornfeld)

1) [line 17] HEISETAN
(a) The word Heseitan here refers to Tum'as Masa, i.e. that a person who is Tahor carried a person who is Tamei. Usually it means that a person who is Tamei moved (or outweighed on a balance scale) a person or object that is Tahor, which is in fact the conclusion of our Sugya (RASHI).

(b) In all other types of Tum'ah besides Zav, Zavah, Nidah and Yoledes, the Tamei who moves a person or object that is Tahor does *not* Metamei the person or object. Only Zav, etc. can Metamei people or objects in this way. According to Rebbi Akiva, however, even Avodah Zarah can Metamei people or objects in this way.

2) [line 19] ZAVIN
(a) A Zav, a man who emits Zov two or three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter.

(b) A woman who has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her 11 days of Zivah, becomes a Zavah Gedolah, and is also an Av ha'Tum'ah.

(c) A Zav and a Zavah, like a Nidah and a Yoledes, can cause objects that are *under* them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether they touch them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav/ha'Zavah (or the *Tachton*, of a Zav or Zavah.) An object under a Zav or a Zavah becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon. Earthenware objects (Klei Cheres) cannot become Midras.

(d) A person who *touches* (Maga) or *carries* (Masa) either a Midras or a Zav or Zavah themselves, along with the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time, get the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah.

(e) Utensils or clothes which lie *above* the Zav or Zavah also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether they touch them or not. These are called the *Elyon* of a Zav or Zavah.

(f) The Chachamim decreed that non-Jews have the status of Zavim even if they never had a discharge of Zov or a show of blood. The decree was instituted so that Jews should stay away from them and not learn their non-Jewish ways.

3) [last line] B'KAF MOZNAYIM - in a balance scale
4) [last line] KARA HA'ZAV - if the Zav outweighed [the food and drinks]


5) [line 11] K'MAN D'MISBERA - as if it is broken
6) [line 17] KA'SHALFAH V'SHARYA - it is taken apart
7) [line 20] ZEVUV BA'AL EKRON - Beelzebub (lord of the flies), the god of the people of Ekron, a Philistine city. The verse that the Gemara brings from Shoftim (8:33) does not mention Zevuv Ba'al Ekron. It describes an unfortunate event in the history of the Jews when they accepted various Ba'alim (gods) upon themselves after the death of the judge Gid'on. Among the rites that they took upon themselves was to have an image of their god at hand at all times. To this end, they fashioned images that could fit in their pockets. The Gemara reasons that this *could* be Zevuv Ba'al Ekron, which was the image of a fly. Had the Gemara brought the verse that specifically mentions Zevuv Ba'al Ekron (Melachim II 1:2), it could be argued that the image was a fly *larger* than a k'Zayis. (TOSFOS DH va'Yasimu)

A Sheretz, even if it is only the size of an Adashah (lentil bean) makes a person or object Tamei through Maga (contact). If a person becomes Tamei by touching a Sheretz, he can immediately go the Mikvah. After nightfall he becomes Tahor and may eat Terumah or Kodshim.

9) [line 27] MES B'CHEZAYIS
(a) A k'Zayis of a Mes (corpse) is called "Avi Avos ha'Tumah" and is Metamei through Maga (contact), Masa (carrying), and Ohel (being in the same room).

(b) If a person or utensil becomes Tamei by touching a Mes, he must wait seven days to go to the Mikvah. On the third and seventh days, Mei Chatas (ashes of the Parah Adumah mixed in spring water) is sprinkled on the person or utensil. The water is sprinkled by means of three hyssops that have been bound together and dipped into the water. Afterwards, the person or utensil is immersed in a Mikvah to complete the purification process.

10) [line 40] "DERECH ONIYAH V'LEV YAM" - "the way of a ship in the midst of the sea" (Mishlei 30:19) - A ship is compared to the sea in this verse, and the Mishnah states (Kelim 17:13) "Kol sheba'Yam Tahor" - "Anything in the sea is Tahor," [except for those things mentioned in that Mishnah]. Our Mishnah infers from this verse that a ship is Tahor.

11) [line 42] MITALTEL MALEI V'REIKAN - it is carried full and empty
12) [line 49] TO'ANIM OSAH BA'YABASHAH - it is usually loaded on land

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