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Shabbos 73

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Rashi 73b DH Guma:
The words "*v'Hishveh* la'Karka"
should be "*v'Hushvah* la'Karka"

1) [line 6] ROK - saliva
2) [line 21] LO MIZREKA LEI - can not be thrown
*3*) [line 31] TA'AH B'SHI'URIN - That is, he intended to do the Melachah in an amount less than the amount needed to be Chayav, and by mistake did the required amount, e.g. he intended to throw an object two Amos.

A person is only allowed to travel a distance of two thousand Amos from his city or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos. Rebbi Akiva claims that this Halachah of "Techum Shabbos" is mentioned in the Torah. He compares two verses which specify the outer boundaries of the cities that were given to the Levi'im. One verse (Bamidbar 35:4) states that their cities' Migrashim (the open spaces outside of the cities) extend one thousand Amos from the wall of the city. The next verse (ibid. 35:5) specifies that the boundaries of the cities extend for two thousand Amos from the edges of the city. He explains that the first verse gives the cities' boundaries while the second verse sets the Techum Shabbos.


1] HA'ZORE'A - planting; causing plants to grow
2] HA'CHORESH - plowing; preparing the earth for planting
3] HA'KOTZER - harvesting; detaching a plant
4] HA'ME'AMER - gathering; collecting natural produce into a bundle
5] HA'DASH - threshing; separating a natural product from its natural container (e.g. wheat from chaff)

6] HA'ZOREH - winnowing; using the wind to separate wanted from unwanted objects
7] HA'BORER - selecting; separating desirable items from undesirable ones (or vice versa) in a mixture
8] HA'TOCHEN - grinding; breaking down a substance into small, usable pieces
9] HA'MERAKED - sifting; separating mixed objects with a strainer
10] HA'LASH - kneading; combining particles with liquid to form a dough or paste
11] HA'OFEH - baking; changing the physical state of a substance by heating it
12] HA'GOZEZ ES HA'TZEMER - shearing wool; detaching non-living parts from a person or animal
13] HA'MELABNO - bleaching; freeing material from unwanted dirt, stains, dust, etc.
14] HA'MENAPTZO - combing; untangling clumps of raw material into separate strands
15] HA'TZOV'O - dyeing; changing or reinforcing color
16] HA'TOVEH - spinning; twisting a strand of fiber into thread
17] HA'MEISACH - threading a loom; tying the thread from the front to the back roller
18] HA'OSEH SHTEI BATEI NIRIN - threading the harness (of the loom) with two threads; inserting two threads through the rings (one in each harness)

19] HA'OREG SHNEI CHUTIN - weaving two threads; pulling the thick latitudinal thread across the longitudinal threads which adds a new row to the material

20] HA'POTZE'A SHNEI CHUTIN - (a) thinning threads (RASHI); (b) untwisting threads (RE'AH cited by the Ran); (c) undoing a weave (RAMBAM Hilchos Shabbos 9:20); (d) cutting or removing the cloth from the loom rollers (RA'AVAD)

21] HA'KOSHER - tying; making a permanent or professional knot
22] HA'MATIR - untying; undoing a permanent or professional knot
23] HA'TOFER SHTEI TEFIROS - sewing two stitches; attaching two materials to one another
24] HA'KORE'A AL MENAS LITFOR SHTEI TEFIROS - tearing in order to sew two stitches; ripping apart material for a useful purpose

25] HA'TZAD TZEVI - trapping a deer; restricting the movement of an undomesticated living creature for its use

26] HA'SHOCHATO - slaughtering; shortening the life of a living creature for its use
27] HA'MAFSHITO - skinning; separating the skin from the flesh of a dead animal
28] HA'MOLCHO - salting the skin [the Gemara asks that this is the same as the next Melachah, tanning, and substitutes for one of them SIRTUT, marking the skin (outlining a surface for a useful purpose)]

29] HA'ME'ABED ES ORO - tanning; processing raw material physically or chemically
30] HA'MEMACHAKO - smoothing; rubbing an object to reduce it roughness or to form a shape
31] HA'MECHATCHO - cutting to shape; altering the size or shape of an object for functional use
32] HA'KOSEV SHTEI OSIYOS - writing two letters; creating meaningful images
33] HA'MOCHEK AL MENAS LICHTOV SHTEI OSIYOS - erasing in order to write two letters; cleaning a surface for writing

34] HA'BONEH - building; constructing or improving a structure
35] HA'SOSER - demolishing; destroying a structure to enable new construction
36] HA'MECHABEH - extinguishing (to produce charcoal); putting out a fire or reducing its intensity

37] HA'MAV'IR - kindling a fire; igniting or prolonging combustion
38] HA'MAKEH B'PATISH - (a) hitting the hammer on the anvil to smooth it at after one's work is completed (RASHI); (b) beating a final blow with a hammer; applying the finishing touches to complete an object (TOSFOS 102b DH Makeh b'Patish); (c) striking a stone in a quarry to detach it after it has been almost completely hewn (RASHI 102b)

39] HA'MOTZI ME'RESHUS LI'RESHUS - transferring an object from a private domain to a public domain or vice versa


7) [line 2] B'HE'ELEM ECHAD - in one period of forgetfulness
8) [line 3] MICHRAV KARVEI B'REISHA - plowing is done first
9) [line 6] HA'ZOMER - pruning
10) [line 6] HA'MAVRICH - putting a shoot from a vine into the ground with its end sticking out of the ground to produce a new plant (once it has rooted, the connecting shoot is severed)

11) [line 6] HA'MARKIV - grafting
*12*) [line 7] [HA KAMASHMA LAN] HA'OSEH MELACHOS HARBEH ... - That is, the Beraisa is teaching us the same teaching that was taught by the Mishnah (on Daf 68a).

*13*) [line 10] ZOMER CHAYAV MISHUM NOTE'A - That is, pruning is a *Toldah* of planting. Even though it is not at all similar to planting in practice, and one would think that there is no Biblical prohibition of pruning on Shabbos, nevertheless conceptually the two are similar (i.e., they both help the plant grow). Therefore one who prunes is indeed Chayav.

*14*) [line 10] VEHA'NOTE'A VEHA'MAVRICH VEHA'MARKIV CHAYAV MISHUM ZORE'A - That is, planting, grafting or putting a shoot from a vine under the ground to propagate, are analogous to Zore'a; they are *synonyms* for Zore'a rather than *Toldos* of Zore'a. (RASHI. This is evident from the fact that the Gemara calls Zomer "a Toldah of *Note'a*.")

*15*) [line 12] MISHUM NOTE'A LO? - That is, it is certainly true that all of these three are synonymous with Zore'a. Nevertheless, instead of saying that grafting or putting a shoot from a vine under the ground to propagate is the same as *Zore'a*, it should have said that it is the same as *planting*, which in turn is synonymous with Zore'a. (RASHI. The advantage of recording it this way is that these two acts are, in practice, are much more similar to planting trees than to Zore'a, or planting vegetables, since they both involve trees.)

*16*) [line 12] EIMA AF MISHUM NOTE'A - That is, Rebbi Ami is not teaching that one *is prohibited* to graft etc. on Shabbos because it is similar to Zore'a. It is obvious that such an act is prohibited. To the contrary, he is teaching that grafting etc. is *only* prohibited because of Zore'a, but it is not a new Av Melachah in its own right. "Af," that is, "even these," are obligated due to Zore'a only. (Since he is not explaining the reason grafting is *prohibited*, but rather he is emphasizing the similarity between grafting and Zore'a [which may have appeared to be disparate acts], there is no reason to compare grafting to Note'a.) (RASHI, according to one interpretation. See Insights.)

17) [line 15] D'KATAL ASPASTA - who cuts grain in its earliest stage of growth (for animal fodder)

18) [line 17] D'KANIV SILKA - who cuts beets (that are growing)
19) [line 19] HA'CHORETZ - to make grooves in the ground
20) [line 21] GAVSHUSHIS - mound
21) [line 23] V'TAMEMAH - and he filled it with loose earth

When a person performs a Melachah (creative act) on Shabbos intentionally, but does not require the usual result of the action, Rebbi Yehudah rules that he is Chayav and Rebbi Shimon rules that he is Patur. For example, if a person digs a hole, not because he needs the hole but rather because he needs the sand, this is a Melachah she'Einah Tzerichah l'Gufah. (See Insights to Shabbos 12:1)

23) [line 28] MEKALKEL - to spoil. Digging a whole in the middle of one's floor ruins the floor

20) [line 29] HA'BOTZER - picking grapes
21) [line 29] HA'GODER - picking dates
22) [line 29] HA'MASIK - picking olives
23) [line 29] HA'OREH - picking figs
24) [line 30] D'SHADA PISA L'DIKLA - who throws a clump of earth at a date palm
25) [line 31] V'ASAR TAMREI - and makes dates fall off
26) [line 34] D'CHANIF MILCHA MI'MALCHESA - who gathers salt from the ditches into which sea water is drawn and allowed to evaporate, leaving the salt

27) [line 37] HA'MENAPETZ - (a) beating flax in its stalks (RASHI); (b) shaking off the dirt from crops (RABEINU CHANANEL, ARUCH)

28) [line 37] HA'MENAPET - (a) beating cotton (to make its seeds fall out) (RASHI); (b) with the Girsa "HA'MENAPES" - rubbing stalks to husk the grain (RABEINU CHANANEL, ARCUH)

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