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Shabbos 56

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Gemara 56b [line 40]:
The words "Tzerif Echad *v'Zehu Italya* Shel Yavan"
should be "Tzerif Echad *b'Italya* Shel Yavan"
(This is the Girsa in the Soncino printing and Dikdukei Sofrim #8)

[2] Gemara 56b [line 42]:
The words "she'Kol *Dayan* she'Dan mi'Ben Shemonah"
should be "she'Kol *Dinin* she'Dan mi'Ben Shemonah"
(The Girsa "Dayan" only appears in certain editions of the Gemara.
Other editions have corrected the error to "Din" or "Dinin".)

1) [line 2] "VA'YEHI ..." - "And it was when Shmuel became old [that he appointed his sons as judges over Israel].... And his sons did not walk in his ways" (Shmuel I 8:1-3)

2) [line 4] "VA'YITU ..." - "And they turned after fraudulent profit [and they accepted bribes and perverted justice]" (ibid.)

3) [line 10] CHAZANEIHEN - their attendants. The sons of Shmuel hired these attendants to go call litigants to court, in order to enable those workers to profit.

4) [line 11] SOFREIHEN - their scribes. The sons of Shmuel hired these scribes to write the various legal documents, in order to enable them to profit.

5) [line 12] CHELKAM SHA'ALU V'FIHEM - they explicitly asked for their portion. As Levi'im, the sons of Shmuel were entitled to receive Ma'aser Rishon. However, by expressly asking that it be given to them, they left the owners no other choice but to give it to them (since they were the leaders of the people, the owners would not refuse them). They thus caused poor Levi'im to lose out.

6) [line 13] MELAI HITILU AL BA'ALEI BATIM - they placed merchandise upon the people [making them be their commerce agents]

7) [line 14] NATLU BI'ZRO'A - they took forcefully

8) [line 15] MATANOS
(a) Whenever a person slaughters an ox, sheep or goat (which is not Kodshim), he must give to a Kohen the Zero'a, Lechayayim and Keivah (the foreleg, the [lower] jaw, and the maw or abomasum [the last of a cow's four stomachs]. (Devarim 18:3) (1) The ZERO'A consists of the two upper limbs of the right foreleg, from the knee to the top of the shoulder blade; (2) The LECHAYAYIM consist of the lower jaw, from the joint where it is attached to the upper jaw to the thyroid cartilage, including the tongue; (3) The KEIVAH consists of the maw together with its Chelev, but the Minhag of the Kohanim is to let the animal's owner keep the Chelev.
(b) Since the sons of Shmuel were Levi'im and not Kohanim, they had no right to take these Matanos, with or without force. However, Rashi offers a second explanation in which the portions that are given to the Levi'im are also called Matanos. In that case, the injustice is only the use of force.

9) [line 21] MEHAPECH V'DARISH BI'ZCHUSEI D'DAVID - he would probe [and discern] and teach the merits of David

10) [line 28] LIKUCHIN YESH LECHA BAH - you are legally entitled to marry her. That is, (a) your nuptials are binding, since she is not married to anyone else (RASHI; TOSFOS' second explanation). (b) Even though you sinned, she is permitted to you, because she went with you originally against her will, and a woman who is coerced does not become forbidden to her husband or to her seducer (after her husband dies or divorces her) (TOSFOS' first explanation).

11) [line 31] "V'ES ASERES CHARITZEI HE'CHALAV" - "[Yishai said to David his son:...] Go bring these ten milk-cheeses to the captain of the thousand, and ask them of their welfare, and bring back news of their victory" (Shmuel I 17:18). - "Bring back news of their victory" is the simple explanation of the words according to Rashi there. Our Gemara interprets it to mean "bring back their divorces for their wives." Hence, this is a source that soldiers at war would divorce their wives lest they be lost at war.

12) [line 40] "VA'YOMER LO HA'MELECH ..." - "And the king said to him, 'Where is he?' And Tziva said to the king, 'Behold, he is in the house of Machir, the son of Amiel, in Lo-Davar.'" (Shmuel II 9:4) - King David wanted to help any surviving member of King Shaul's family, because of his great love of Yonasan, the son of Shaul. Tziva, slave of King Shaul, informed him of the only surviving member, Mefivoshes. According to Chazal, Tziva lied about the Torah-learning of Mefivoshes, claiming that he was unlearned (from the word "Lo-Davar".) David discovered him an exceptional Torah scholar (from the word "mi'Lo-Davar [verse 5,]" which may be read Maley Davar.)

13a) [line 47] "U'MEFIVOSHES BEN SHA'UL ..." - "And Mefivoshes the son of Shaul came down to meet the king, and he had neither dressed his feet, nor trimmed his beard, nor washed his clothes, from the day the king departed until the day he came back in peace." (Shmuel II 19:25) - The two possibilities for his behavior were: (a) he was loyal to King David, mourning the fact that the king was temporarily deposed; (b) he was disloyal to King David, and did not beautify himself at the king's return
*b*) [line 47] U'MEFIVOSHES BEN SHA'UL - That is, Mefivoshes son of Yonasan son of Shaul (Even though he was the son of Yonasan, the verse calls him the son Shaul because now, when he learned that David suspected him of treason, he began to hate David [as is explained below on 56b,] like his grandfather. (IYUN YAKOV); Alternatively, he may be called son of Shaul because he had complaints against HaSh-m, like his grandfather, as the Gemara explains on 56b. (M. KORNFELD)

14) [line 49] "VAYEHI KI VA YERUSHALAYIM" - "And it came to pass, when he was coming to Yerushalayim to meet the king, that the king said to him, 'Why did you not go with me, Mefivoshes?'"(ibid. 19:26)


15) [line 7] AMAR LO, ANI AMARTI - Mefivoshes said to King David, "I thought ..."
16) [line 11] SHE'ASAH MERIVAH IM BE'ALAV - that made a quarrel with his Owner
17) [line 12] NATZA BAR NATZA - Strife (Mefivoshes) son of Strife (Shaul)
18) [line 19] "V'LO HAYAH LEVAVO SHALEM ..." - "and his heart was not perfect with the Lord, his G-d, as was the heart of David, his father." (Melachim I 11:4)

19) [line 27] "V'ES HA'BAMOS ASHER AL PENEI YERUSHALAYIM ASHER MIMIN L'HAR (HA'MISHCHAH) [HA'MASHCHIS] ..." - "And the high places that were before Yerushalayim, which were on the south of the Mount of Corruption (= Mount of Olives), which Shlomo the king of Yisrael had built for Ashtores the abomination of the Tzidonim, and for Kemosh the abomination of Moav, and for Milkom the abomination of the people of Amon, the king (Yoshiyahu) defiled." (Melachim II 23:13)

20) [line 31] ACHARONIM - Yoshiyahu
21) [line 32] RISHONIM - Shlomo
22) [line 34] SHAMASH L'DAVAR ACHER - a servant for a house of idol worship (that is, a chopper of wood, drawer of water or the like for purposes of idol worship, which is not is essence a prohibition, but it is a great disgrace, as seen in Vayikra 25:47 "v'Nimkar ... l'Eker Mishpachas Ger." ("and sell himself ... for purposes of idol worship." Idol worship is called Eker because Sofo l'Aker (it is destined to be uprooted.)

23) [line 36] ELEF MINEI ZEMER - a thousand types of musical instruments
24) [line 39] SHEIRATON - a sand bank, silt
*25*) [line 39] KERACH GADOL [SHEL ROMI] - That is, Shlomo married the daughter of Pharaoh after the completion of the building of the Beis ha'Mikdash. Because of this sin, it was decreed that it would be destroyed, and world power would eventually be given to Rome, who would destroy the second Beis ha'Mikdash (and would not be rebuilt "Ad Ki Yavo Shiloh" - until Mashi'ach comes) (M. KORNFELD)

26) [line 40] TZERIF ECHAD - one hut
*27*) [line 40] ITALYA SHEL YAVAN - That is, the strongest part of Rome, along the lines of #25 above, that when Yerav'am set up the two calves in order to prevent Benei Yisrael from traveling to the Beis ha'Mikdash, this precipitated its destruction. (M. KORNFELD)

28) [line 46] NASAN D'TZUTZISA - the name given to Mar Ukva (a) because he was rewarded with a shining light (Nitzotzos) over his head due to a great act of abstinence and Teshuvah; (b) because he was a great Torah sage, and the verse states "Chachmas Adam Ta'ir Panav" ("The wisdom of a person lights up his face" - Koheles 8:1); (c) because the Angel who accepted his Teshuvah held him by his sidelocks (Tzitzis Rosho)

29) [last line] MENAMNEM - dozing
30) [last line] V'CHAZA'I B'CHELMA - and I saw in a dream
31) [last line] D'KA PASHAT YADEI - that an angel stretched out his hand and accepted it

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