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Shabbos 51

1) [line 1] KIL'AYIM
(a) It is forbidden to plant different types of crops together as it states in the Torah, "Sadecha Lo Sizra Kil'ayim" (Vayikra 19:19 - "Do not plant different species in your field".) With regard to vineyards it states, "Lo Sizra Karmecha Kil'ayim, Pen Tikdash ha'Mele'ah ha'Zera Asher Tizra u'Svu'as ha'Karem" (Devarim 22:9 - "Do not plant different species in your vineyard lest the yield of both the crops you planted and the fruit of the vineyard be forfeited (alt. fit to be burned)").

(b) Rebbi Yoshiyah rules that the prohibition of Kil'ayim forbids only the planting of wheat, barley and grape seed at the same time (with one throw of the hand). TOSFOS (Kidushin 39a DH ha'Hu) suggests that the words "Karmecha Kil'ayim" indicate that there was a mixture of crops (wheat and barley) planted at the same time that the vineyard was planted. The Halachah follows Rebbi Yoshiyah's ruling with regard to vineyards only. It is prohibited to sow other fields with a mixture of seeds whether it is done at the same time or not.

(c) Burying turnips and radishes under a grapevine does not fall under the prohibition of Kil'ayim, since this is not called planting.

2) [line 1] SHEVI'IS
(a) The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that (1) they must be teated as if they have no owner. Anyone may come in to any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat. (2) The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion. (3) The Torah also requires that they be eaten in the normal way for each fruit.
(b) The Shemitah year is meant to teach the Jewish people to rely on HaSh-m for their sustenance, a fact that is not always clear to them during the six years in which they work their own fields.

3) [line 5] KITON - flask [of cold water]
*4*) [line 5] V'NOSEN L'SACHAS HA'KAR - That is, this is done in order to keep it cool (Rashi)

5) [line 6] KESES - pillow, cushion
6) [line 18] KEVAR HORAH ZAKEN - Since the Torah-scholar (Rebbi Yosi) already ruled in this matter, [I rescind my ruling]

7) [line 22] MEMALE MEKOM AVOSAV HAVAH - he (Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi) filled his father's place, i.e. he achieved the same greatness in Torah-learning

8) [line 22] V'CHAFUF V'YOSHEV - he was subordinate to Rebbi since Rebbi was the Nasi, even though he was a greater Torah-scholar than Rebbi

9) [line 24] L'DARU AVDEI - to Daru, his slave
10) [line 25] D'ACHIM KEFEILA ARAMA'AH - that was heated by a non-Jewish baker
12) [line 27] K'RABVASEI AVID - he acted in accordance with the rulings of his teachers

13) [line 31] BISHULEI NACHRIM
(a) A decree was enacted that foods that were cooked by non-Jews even in a Jew's house or in a Jew's pots are prohibited to eat. The decree was instituted to prevent intermarriage and to prevent the possibility that the non-Jew might feed non-Kosher food to Jews.

(b) Only foods that must be cooked were included in the decree. If they are edible raw, the non-Jew has not added to those foods a significant change to prohibit them. Furthermore, only foods that are important enough to be served to kings are prohibited if a non-Jew cooked them. It is not customary to invite others to a banquet where less important foods are served. Therefore the sages did not worry that these foods would bring about a mingling of Jews and non-Jews.

*14*) [line 35] NOTEL ES HA'SADININ ... - That is, he replaces the insulating covering of Sedinim with Gelufkarim or vice versa

15) [line 36] GELUFKARIN - (O.F. cot) coats
16) [line 38] MEICHAM - kettle
17) [line 39] PINAH MI'MEICHAM L'MEICHAM - if he emptied the water from one kettle into another one, i.e. from the one in which the water was heated to a kettle that was not hot

18a) [line 40] AKUREI KA MEKIR LAH - he is cooling it off
b) [line 40] ARTUCHEI KA MIRTACH LAH?! - do we have to worry that he will heat it up?!


19) [line 5] TACH ES PIHA B'VATZEK - it is permitted to paste the lid to the pot with dough that was prepared on Friday

20) [line 8] MERAZKIN - crush
21) [line 9] SHE'YAZUVU MEIMAV - that it should melt and yield water (lit. that its water should flow from it)

**********PEREK BA'MEH VEHEMAH**********

22) [line 14] AFSAR - (O.F. chevestre) halter, a rope with a noose or head stall for leading horses or cattle

23) [line 14] NE'AKAH - (O.F. dromel) dromedary (one-humped camel)
24) [line 14] CHATAM - an iron muzzle
25) [line 15] LUVDAKIM - a Libyan donkey
26) [line 15] PERUMBI'A - a bit
27) [line 15] SHEIR - a collar
28) [line 19] CHIVARTI - white
29) [line 19] ZEMAMA D'FARZELA - an iron muzzle
30) [line 20] CHAMRA LUBA - a Libyan donkey
31) [line 21] PAGEI D'FARZELA - an iron bit
32) [line 22] TZARU SHADRU LEI SA'AREI - they tied up barley with his money and sent it back to him. Money used to be tied into a sash, as evident from Devarim 14:25

33) [line 23] NIGREI D'CHAMRA SA'AREI - the steps of a donkey depend upon the barley that it eats

34) [line 24] MACHLIFIN LIFNEI REBBI - they asked Rebbi the opposite case
35) [line 26] LO MINTERA BEI - it is not guarded by it
36) [line 28] NETIRUSA YESEIRTA - unnecessary precautions used to guard an animal
37) [line 31] PERED - a mule
38) [line 35] SUGAR - collar
39) [line 40] B'MISNA B'ALMA - with merely a thin rope

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