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Shabbos 43

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Rashi 43a DH Ein Bahen Mamash:
The words "u'Mutar Litlan"
should be "u'Mutar Litlo"
(That is, it is referring to the vessel. This is the emendation of the
Magen Avraham 265:6 in our Rashi and in Rashi 47b DH Ein Bahen Mamash - RASHASH)

1) [line 2] BATEI GECHINEI - houses with low ceilings
2) [line 3] SOMCHIN OSAH B'SAFSAL - it is permitted to support it with a bench
3) [line 4] ARUCHOS HA'MITAH - (O.F. limons) lengthwise planks of a bed
4) [line 4] KESHUREI CHADTEI - new [ceiling] beams
5) [line 5] DELAF - a drip

(a) Any utensil that is useful on Shabbos is called Muchan (ready [for use].) When an article of Muktzah falls into it on Shabbos, the utensil may be rendered immovable. If the utensil cannot be pulled out from under the Muktzah (the Muktzah itself may not be moved directly,) it becomes Batel me'Heichano, i.e. its status of usefulness is canceled. Our Mishnah deals with a case where oil that is Muktzah drips into a bowl. If a person sets the bowl there on Shabbos, he has been Mevatel the bowl me'Heichano. Another example brought on Daf 154b is where large sacks fall on pillows that cannot be extracted afterwards.

(b) Rashi 43b DH explains that the reason for the prohibition of Mevatel Keli me'Heichano is that it is similar to affixing the utensil to its place with mortar, which is comparable to the Melachah of Boneh (building). Rashi 154b DH v'Ha explains that the reason for the prohibition is that it is comparable to the Melachah of Soser (destroying - the utensil.)

7) [line 10] TEVEL, MUCHAN HU ETZEL SHABBOS - Tevel is not Muktzah Machmas Gufo (i.e. in and of itself.) It is Muktzah Machmas Isur, since the Chachamim prohibited tithing on Shabbos. If a person violates the Isur and separates the Terumos and Ma'asros, the produce is no longer Muktzah Machmas Isur and may be eaten on Shabbos.

8) [line 14] D'RAFI - it is loose
9) [line 16] KOFIN - it is permissible to turn over
10) [line 16] EFROCHIN - chicks


(a) MUKTZAH - The word Muktzah literally means "set aside at the brink [of one's intentions for use]." The term is used to describe items that are set aside not to be used right now, such as wood stacked in a barn. In a broader sense, the word Muktzah includes anything that a person did not intend to use during Bein ha'Shemashos at the start of Shabbos, for whatever reason it may be.

(b) THE ARGUEMENT OF THE TANA'IM - Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon argue as to whether one may move or use on Shabbos items that fit into certain categories of Muktzah. There are at least six different categories of Muktzah over which Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon disagree [(1) Hiktzehu mi'Da'ato; (2) Nolad; (3) Muktzah Machmas Isur; (4) Muktzah Machmas Mi'us; (5) Keli she'Melachto Eino Ela l'Isur; (6) Muchan la'Adam Eino Muchan l'Kelavim.] On Shabbos, objects that fit into one of these categories may not be moved according to Rebbi Yehudah. There are other categories of Muktzah which may not be moved according to both Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon [such as (1) Muktzah Machmas Gufo; (2) Huktzah l'Mitzvaso; (3) Davar she'Eino Ra'uy she'Decha'o b'Ydayim; (4) Davar he'Asur she'Lo Chashav she'Yavo l'Ydei Heter b'Shabbos.]

(c) MIGO D'ISKATZA'I - According to Rebbi Yehudah, anything that was Muktzah during Bein ha'Shemashos remains Muktzah for the rest of Shabbos even if the reason for it being set aside has disappeared. This is called Migo d'Iskatza'i l'Vein ha'Shemashos, Iskatza'i l'Chulei Yoma (lit. since it was set aside for Bein ha'Shemashos, it was set aside for the entire day.) According to Rebbi Shimon, there are times when we do not say Migo d'Iskatza'i. If an object was Muktzah during Bein ha'Shemashos, and its owner realized that it will probably become usable during Shabbos, he may use or move the object after the point in which it becomes usable (Shabbos 44a, 46b.)

12) [line 24] B'TZARICH LI'MKOMO - when he needed to move the object in order to use the space upon which it was resting

13) [line 28] MACHATZALOS - mats
14) [line 28] MEKURZALOS - (a) stones which are pointed at one end (RASHI); (b) prepared stones with no jagged points; (c) soft stones (ARUCH)

15) [line 28] CHAZYAN - they are fit
16) [line 29] LEVENIM - bricks
17) [line 29] D'ISHTAYUR MI'BINYANA - that were left over from a building
18) [line 29] L'MIZGA - to recline
19) [line 30] KAVERES DEVORIM - a beehive


20) [line 3] SHTEI CHALOS - two honeycombs which are always left in the hive for the bees' sustenance during the winter

21) [line 3] V'HA MUKTZOS NINHU? - but they have been set aside for the bees (which makes them forbidden to be moved on Shabbos)?

22) [line 5] LI'FLOG V'LISNEI B'DIDAH - let him make the differentiation in that case itself

(a) An act which is done for a certain purpose (which will be accomplished without transgressing a Melachah), but which may result in a Melachah being inadvertently performed, it is called a Davar she'Eino Miskavein. The example brought in our Gemara is spreading out a mat over a beehive, where bees may possibly be trapped. (Tzeidah, or trapping, is one of the Avos Melachos.) Rebbi Yehudah prohibits performing such an action, since it may result in a Melachah. Rebbi Shimon disagrees, claiming that even though a Melachah may result from this action, since the Melachah will come about without intent, the action is permitted.

(b) Rebbi Shimon and Rebbi Yehudah disagree only if it is not clear that bees will be trapped (i.e., that a Melachah will be done). If it is inevitable for bees to be trapped, the act is prohibited even according to Rebbi Shimon -- even though the person spreading the mat is not the least bit interested in trapping bees. Such a situation, in which a Melachah will inevitably be accomplished, is referred to as "Pesik Reisha v'Lo Yamus."

(c) A person must have specific *intent* to do a Melachah on Shabbos in order to be liable for punishment or to be required to bring a Korban. Therefore, *after* a person spreads out a mat over the beehive and bees were trapped, even Rebbi Yehudah will agree that the person is not obligated to bring a Korban, since the trapping was done accidentally. Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon argue only as to whether it is permitted *in the first place* to perform an action that may result in a Melachah. (See Insights to 41:2)

25) [line 11] SHE'LO YA'ASENAH KI'METZUDAH - he should not cover in a way that it is like a trap

26) [line 12] D'LISHBOK LEHU REVACHA - that he should leave room for them to get out
27) [line 12] D'LO LIT'TZEDU MEMEILA - so that they are not trapped as an indirect result
28) [line 17] PUKU - go out
29) [line 18] KEVAR TIRGEMA RAV HUNU LISHEMA'ATICH B'VAVEL - Rav Huna already proclaimed your teaching in Bavel (that utensils are only moved on Shabbos for items that are not Muktzah)

30) [line 29] HOFCHO MI'MITAH L'MITAH - the corpse is transferred from one bed to another

31) [line 33] TILTUL MIN HA'TZAD - moving something in an indirect manner (see Insights)

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