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Shabbos 42

1) [line 2] GACHELES SHEL MATECHES - a glowing, red-hot piece of metal (lit. a coal of metal)

When a person performs a Melachah (creative act) on Shabbos intentionally, but does not require the usual result of the action, Rebbi Yehudah rules that he is Chayav and Rebbi Shimon rules that he is Patur. For example, if a person digs a hole, not because he needs the hole but rather because he needs the sand, this is a Melachah she'Einah Tzerichah l'Gufah. (See Insights to Shabbos 12:1)

3) [line 8] KOTZ - a thorn
*4*) [line 13] BEIN CHAMIN L'SOCH TZONEN - (The Gemara is discussing a case where the amount of hot or cold water were roughly equal, according to Rashi - see Insights)

5) [line 14] AMBATI - a bath
6) [line 17] SEFEL - bowl, basin. See Insights
*7*) [line 22] RECHITZAH B'CHAMIN LEIKAH - That is, water that is heated before Shabbos is too hot to use on Shabbos without mixing in cold water to cool it. If one cannot mix cool water in, how can he even wash himself in preheated water on Shabbos?

8) [line 29] RAVA D'LO KAPID A'MANA - Rava did not hesitate to put hot water into cold water or cold water into hot water when he put it into a bowl or basin that was a Keli Sheni (The "second utensil" is the one into which the food was poured from the utensil in which it was cooked [Keli Rishon])

9) [line 30] KITON - a flask
10) [line 33] D'MIFSAK KELI - that the sides of the flask intervene, lessening the cooking process

11) [last line] ILFAS - a tightly covered pot, stew-pot
12) [last line] KEDEIRAH - a open pot
13) [last line] MERUTACHIN - boiling hot
14) [last line] TAVLIN - spices


15) [line 1] TAMCHOY - a large plate or serving tray
16) [line 3] CHOMETZ - vinegar
17) [line 3] TZIR - fish brine
18) [line 13] BISRA D'SORA - meat of an ox
19) [line 20] EIN NE'OSIN MIMENU - it is forbidden to derive benefit from it
20) [line 22] EINO MIN HA'MUCHAN - it is Muktzah (lit. it is not ready to be used)


(a) MUKTZAH - The word Muktzah literally means "set aside at the brink [of one's intentions for use]." The term is used to describe items that are set aside not to be used right now, such as wood stacked in a barn. In a broader sense, the word Muktzah includes anything that a person did not intend to use on Shabbos, for whatever reason it may be.

(b) THE ARGUEMENT OF THE TANA'IM - Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon argue as to whether one may move or use on Shabbos items that fit into certain categories of Muktzah. There are at least six different categories of Muktzah over which Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon disagree [(1) Hiktzehu mi'Da'ato; (2) Nolad; (3) Muktzah Machmas Isur; (4) Muktzah Machmas Mi'us; (5) Keli she'Melachto Eino Ela l'Isur; (6) Muchan la'Adam Eino Muchan l'Behemah.] On Shabbos, objects that fit into one of these categories may not be moved according to Rebbi Yehudah. There are other categories of Muktzah which may not be moved according to both Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon [such as (1) Muktzah Machmas Gufo; (2) Huktzah l'Mitzvaso; (3) Davar she'Eino Ra'uy v'Decha'o b'Ydayim; (4) Davar he'Asur she'Lo Chashav she'Yavo l'Ydei Heter b'Shabbos.]

(c) The Mishnah is discussing oil that was placed in a lamp before Shabbos, which is Muktzah Machmas Isur. *After* the lamp went out, Rebbi Shimon permits using the oil, while Rebbi Yehudah prohibits it (category b:3). After Shabbos they agree that it may be used. On Shabbos, however, this oil was set aside for lighting during Bein ha'Shemashos, and removing some of it would have violated the Isur of Mechabeh (extinguishing); therefore Rebbi Yehudah rules that it becomes Muktzah Machmas Isur for the entire of Shabbos.

*22*) [line 24] NOSNIN KELI TACHAS TARNEGOLES - To place a bowl *under* a hen that lays its eggs on a *slope*, in order to prevent the eggs from rolling away and breaking

*23*) [line 26] KOFEH ALEHA KELI - To place an upturned bowl *over* an egg that a hen laid in a *garbage heap*, to prevent people from stepping on it or shattering it.

24) [line 32] TEVEL
(a) After a crop is harvested, and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop, which he gives to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at approximately one fiftieth.
(b) After Terumah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given every year is called Ma'aser Rishon; one tenth of the produce must be given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, which is also given to a Kohen.
(c) The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been removed. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Ydei Shamayim.

25) [line 33] GULFEI CHADTEI - new barrels
26) [line 34] PAK'EI - they split open
27) [last line] NITZOTZOS - sparks

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