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Shabbos 36

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Gemara 36a [line 5]:
"u'Mai Shofar *Nami*"
The word "Nami" does not appear in Dikdukei Sofrim

[2] Rashi 36a DH Beis ha'Kosos:
The words "Asuy k'Min *Kos*"
should be "Asuy k'Min *Kosos*" (M. Kornfeld)

[3] Tosfos 36a DH Ha Rebbi Nechemya:
The words "*Lachtoch Kegon* Chosalos Shel Temarim *b'Sakin* O ..."
should be "*Kegon Lachtoch b'Sakin* Chosalos Shel Temarim O ..."
(M. Kornfeld)

(a) A utensil which is *mostly* used for activities that are prohibited on Shabbos is called a Keli she'Melachto l'Isur. Some examples are a saw, a hammer and a pitchfork.

(b) Moving a Keli she'Melachto l'Isur in order to protect it (from the sun or from being stolen) is prohibited. However, it *may* be moved *l'Tzorech Gufo*, i.e. using the utensil to perform activities that are permissible on Shabbos, e.g. using a hammer to crack nuts. It is also permissible to move a Keli she'Melachto l'Isur *l'Tzorech Mekomo*, i.e. in order to use the space upon which it is resting. (RAMBAM Hilchos Shabbos 25:2,3,5,7.) These rules apply to utensils whose *main* function is for activities that are prohibited on Shabbos; their use for permitted activities is subordinate. Utensils that have *no* permissible use on Shabbos are a subject of dispute between Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon. Rebbi Yehudah rules that they are Muktzah, and it is forbidden to move them at all, like all other objects that a person did not intend to use during Bein ha'Shemashos at the start of Shabbos (see Background to Shabbos 28:26a,b.) Rebbi Shimon rules that they have the same laws as all other Kelim she'Melachtan l'Isur, and may be moved l'Tzorech Gufan and l'Tzorech Mekoman (TOSFOS DH Ha Rebbi Yehudah and DH Ha Rebbi Shimon.)

(c) In our Sugya, a Shofar (which is curved) is a Keli she'Melachto l'Isur which may be used as a utensil from which to drink. There is no argument between Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon with regard to a Shofar. A Chatzotzerah (which is straight and cannot hold water) has almost no permissible use on Shabbos, and is considered Muktzah according to Rebbi Yehudah. Rebbi Shimon, whose categories of Muktzah are very limited, permits moving a Chatzotzerah l'Tzorech Gufo and l'Tzorech Mekomo just like any other Keli she'Melachto l'Isur. (See Insights)

Rebbi Nechemyah holds that even Kelim she'Melachtan l'Heter (utensils which are *mostly* used for activities that are permitted on Shabbos) may only be moved for their specific, normal use. For example, a table knife may only be used to cut food and may not be used to cut rope.

3) [line 7] CHATZOTZRASA SHOFARA - what was called at the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash Chatzotzerah (trumpet) is now called Shofar

4a) [line 9] ARAVAH TZAFTZEFAH - what was called at the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash Aravah (a willow which is Kosher for the Mitzvah of Lulav) is now called Tzaftzefah
b) [line 9] TZAFTZEFAH ARAVAH - what was called at the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash Tzaftzefah (a type of willow with rounded leaves and a white stem which is not Kosher for the Mitzvah of Lulav) is now called Aravah

5) [line 10] PESORAH PESORTA - what was called at the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash Pesorah (a large table) is now called Pesorta

6) [line 32] HUVLILA, BEI KASEI - The four stomachs of ruminants are called: (a) Keres (rumen); (b) Beis ha'Kosos (recticulum); (c) Hemses (omasum); (d) Kevah (abomasum). What was called at the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash Huvlila (or Hemses, the *third* stomach of ruminants) is now called Beis ha'Kosos (the name previously used for the *second* stomach.) The second stomach has a very thick, double wall, while the third stomach has a thin wall

7a) [line 34] MI'TZAD ECHAD - if the second stomach was punctured by a needle which *did not* go through the entire double wall, the animal is Kosher. The second half of the wall closes up the hole.
b) [line 35] MI'SHNEI TZEDADIM - if the second stomach was punctured by a needle which *did* go through the double wall, the animal is a Tereifah

8) [last line] BAVEL BURSIF - the area which used to be called Bavel is now called Bursif


9a) [line 1] GITEI NASHIM: SHINAH SHEMO U'SHEMAH (RASHI, 2nd explanation) (a) The Torah states (Devarim 24:1) that if a man wants to divorce his wife, he must write a Sefer Kerisus (a document that cuts [the bond between them]) and hand it to her in front of two witnesses. In the language of Chazal, this document of divorce is called a Get (pl. - Gitin.)
(b) A Get must contain the full names of the pair involved in the divorce, the places where they are to be found at the time of the writing (or where they live, or where they were born, according to some), and the date and place where the Get is written. If any of these items is missing or mistaken ("Shinah Shemo u'Shemah"), the Get is invalid.

9b) [line 1] GITEI NASHIM: B'FANAI NECHTAV (RASHI, 1st explanation.)
(a) The Gemara at the beginning of Maseches Gitin discusses a special decree that was made to ensure that Gitin that were written outside of Eretz Yisrael were Kosher. At the time that such a Get was given to a woman, witnesses had to testify that the Get was written and signed properly in front of them.

(b) This decree was enacted (according to Raba, see Gitin 2b, 5b) because of the dubious level of expertise in Hilchos Gitin of the scribes of Chutz l'Aretz. One of the Halachos of Gitin requires that the Get be written for the express purpose of divorcing woman Y from man X, and that it may not be used for a different pair thereafter. This is called writing a Get "Lishmah." Scribes of Chutz l'Aretz, some of whom did not know this Halachhah, would use a pre-written Get, without writing it expressly for the pair involved in the divorce.

(c) In Bavel this decree was not enacted, and it was not necessary to provide such such witnesses, since the scribes there were all well-versed in the laws of Gitin.

************PEREK KIRAH************************

10) [line 3] KIRAH - a stove
11) [line 3] SHE'HISIKUHA - which was fueled with
12) [line 3] KASH - the part of the stalk that is cut off with the grain
13) [line 3] GEVAVAH - the part of the stalk that remains in the ground after the harvest which is later pulled out and used as fuel

14) [line 4] GEFES - sesame seed shells after the oil is extracted
15) [line 5] SHE'YIGROF - until he rakes out [the coals]
*16*) [line 6] AVAL LO TAVSHIL - According to Rashi (Daf 18b DH u'Bashil,) the dish is fully-cooked, but further cooking enhances it. According to Tosfos (ibid. DH Bashil and here,) the dish is only one-half or one-third cooked.

17) [line 11] KATUM - covered with ashes (to reduce the heat of the coals)
18) [line 12] K'MA'ACHAL BEN DERUSAI - a food that is one-third cooked (RASHI) or one-half cooked (RAMBAM), which was the way the bandit Ben Derusai, who was always on the run, would eat his food

19) [last line] HA SU LAMAH LI? - why would the Tana state the same Halachah twice? (lit. why do I [need this] again?)

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