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Shabbos 34

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Gemara 34a [line 23]:
"*Af Al Gav* d'Amur Rabanan Sheloshah Devarim"
In the Gemara Gitin 6b, the Girsa is "*Ha* d'Amur Rabanan ... "

[2] Rashi 34a DH mishe'Chashechah:
The words "Gezeirah Shema" are a new Dibur ha'Maschil

1) [line 1] L'AKUFEI - to go around
2) [line 3] KAN KITZETZ BEN ZAKAI - here, Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai [planted] and picked

3a) [line 3] TURMESEI TERUMAH - lupines of Terumah, a type of pod or bean of the pea family
b) [line 4] AVAD IHU NAMI HACHI - Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai also picked bean-pods like Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai. He tested (miraculously) for Tum'ah by dropping the bean-pods (which were Chulin) and causing the corpses to rise (RASHI). Alternatively, Rebbi Shimon also did something to help the town, like Yakov Avinu (TOSFOS). He clarified where the corpses were by applying his knowledge of science.

4) [line 4] D'HAVAH KASHI - that the ground was hard
5) [line 5] D'HAVAH RAFI - that the ground was soft
6) [line 5] TZAINEI - he marked it
7) [line 1O] MEFARKESOS ZU ES ZU - dye one another's hair


(a) By Torah Law, a person is required to tithe his grain only if he harvests it in a normal manner. This includes completing the stalk-to-grain process in the field, piling up the grain there and bringing it through the front door of his house or yard (Berachos 35b). It is then Hukba l'Ma'aser (designated for tithing). If one of these steps is missing, the produce may be eaten in an irregular fashion (Achilas Ara'i) without separating Terumos and Ma'asros. Two examples of Achilas Ara'i are eating the produce while it is still in the field or feeding it to one's livestock.
(b) Even if the process for Kevi'us l'Ma'aser described above is not completed, there are certain conditions which in and of themselves cause the produce to need tithing. Designating the food to be eaten on Shabbos is one of them. Even though one may not tithe on Shabbos, if the food was designated for Shabbos it may not be eaten *after* Shabbos without tithing (Gemara Beitzah 34b.)
(c) After the crop is harvested, and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop, which he gives to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at approximately one fiftieth.
(d) After Terumah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given every year is called Ma'aser Rishon; one tenth of the produce must be given to a Levi.
(e) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(f) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought to and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. The food which is bought with that money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah.
9) [line 15] EIRAVTEM?
(a) According to Torah law, in a courtyard which has in it houses owned by different people, all of the neighbors may transfer objects from their houses to the courtyard and into other houses on Shabbos. Even though each house is a separate Reshus ha'Yachid, it is permissible to move objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another. Such is also the case when several *courtyards* open on a dead-end alley, and when a city is completely walled. (RAMBAM Hilchos Eruvin 1:1)
(b) King Shlomo decreed that transferring objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another is forbidden, unless an Eruv Chatzeiros (lit. a mixing of the courtyards) is created on Friday, before Shabbos begins. (Shabbos 14b, Eruvin 21b). (The equivalent of an Eruv Chatzeiros for an alley or a city is called a Shituf Mava'os.) This is accomplished by all of the neighbors collectively setting aside a loaf of bread, in one common container, in one of the houses of the courtyard, or one of the courtyards of the alleyway. This shows that all neighbors have an equal share in all of the Reshuyos ha'Yachid, just as they all have a share in that bread. They can be considered one Reshus again. (In the case of an alley or city, any food is permissible to use as an Eruv, except for water, salt and mushrooms.) (RAMBAM ibid. 1:4-9)
(c) A person is only allowed to travel a distance of 2000 Amos from his city or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos. If he wants to travel more than 2000 Amos, he must make an Eruv Techumin. This is done by placing enough of one food that would be used for two meals near the end of his 2000 Amos, in the direction in which he wishes to travel. The location where his food is placed is considered his new dwelling for that Shabbos, and he may travel 2000 Amos in any direction from there.
10) [line 17] VADAI - produce from which Terumos and Ma'asros have definitely not been taken

11) [line 19] DEMAI
Produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance - see Berachos 47b) is referred to as Demai ("Da Mai?" = "what is this?"). Ma'aser Rishon, Terumas Ma'aser, and Ma'aser Sheni must be separated from this produce since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have separated them before selling it. Terumah Gedolah, however, (because of its stringency) and Ma'aser Sheni (because it belongs to the owner) are presumed to have been separated.

12) [line 19] TOMNIN ES HA'CHAMIN - hot food is wrapped on Friday in substances that do not add their own heat (see the beginning of the fourth Perek, ba'Meh Tomnin)

13) [line 21] "V'YADATA KI SHALOM OHALECHA; U'FAKADTA NAVECHA V'LO SECHETA" - "And you shall know that your tent is at peace; and you shall visit your residence and shall miss nothing" (Iyov 5:24) The Rosh (end of #21) explains that "v'Yadata Ki Shalom Ohalecha" refers to lighting Shabbos candles, which are for Shlom Bayis (see Background to Shabbos 31:46). "u'Fakadta Navecha" pertains to Eruv Techumin, in which a person changes his place of residence. "v'Lo Secheta" refers to Ma'asros. If a person does not remember to separate Ma'asros, he will be lacking food for Shabbos.

14) [line 25] D'LIKBELINHU MINEI - that they should accept and do what he says

15) [line 31] SIMAN B'GUFYA ZIMRA TZIFRA B'CHAVLA D'MILSA - This Siman (sign) refers to all of the statements in Maseches Shabbos of Rebbi Aba said in the name of Rav Chiya bar Rav Ashi who said them in the name of Rav.

(a) "Gufya" is our Sugya which starts with the words "Ha Gufa Kashya.";
(b) "Zimra" is on Daf 73b, where he states that Zomer (pruning) falls under the category of Note'a (planting);
(c) "Tzifra" is at the top of Daf 107a, when a Tzipor (bird) flies into a person's cloak;
(d) "b'Chavla" is on Daf 113a, a person may bring a Chevel (rope) to tie a cow to its trough;
(e) "d'Milsa" is on Daf 124b, brooms of Milsa (rags) are not Muktzah and may be moved on Shabbos. Based upon this Siman, the Gemaros which have mistakes in the names quoted may be corrected (MAHARSHA)
16) [line 44] SHE'EINO MOSIF HEVEL - a substance that does not add heat to the food

17) [line 44] SHEMA YARTI'ACH - he might heat up the food on Shabbos (when he sees that it has cooled off) See Insights


18) [line 2] SHEMA YATMIN B'REMETZ - he might keep the food warm by placing it in hot coals mixed with ash

19) [line 8] SHE'PENEI MIZRACH MA'ADIMIN - the eastern sky has a reddish appearance

20) [line 8] HICHSIF HA'TACHTON - if the lower part of the eastern sky became dark

21) [line 9] V'LO HICHSIF HA'ELYON - and the top part of the eastern sky did not turn dark

22) [line 10] V'HISHVAH LA'TACHTON - and became the same as the bottom part of the sky

23) [line 13] K'HEREF AYIN - like the blink of an eye

24) [line 17] RA'AH SHNEI YAMIM (ZAV)
(a) Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter.

(b) According to Halachah, a Zav who emitted Zov twice or three times does not become Tahor from his Zivah until 7 "clean" days pass, during which he does not emit any Zov. He is supposed to check himself twice every day; once in the morning and once towards evening. If he emits Zov during those days, he must begin his count all over again (Rambam, Hil. Mechusrei Kaparah 3:1.)

25) [line 24] KEROCH V'TANI - put the statements together (lit. wrap) and learn as follows:

26) [line 32] V'AZDU L'TA'AMAIHU - and they (Rabah and Rav Yosef) each follow their own reasoning elsewhere

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