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Shabbos 31

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Gemara 31b [line 19]
The words "Darash *Rav* Ula ... Al Tirsha Harbeh"
should be "Darash *Rava bar* Ula ... Al Tirsha Harbeh"
(This is evident from the next Sugya in the Gemara, "Darash Rava bar Ula
... Ki Ein Chartzubos," which is only brought here because the same Amora
taught both statements, and the first involved a verse from Koheles.) This
Girsa also appears in the Oxford manuscript and Yalkut Shimoni Koheles 7,
#976 (see notes to Dikdukei Sofrim #30)

1) [line 1] SHE'HIMRU ZEH ES ZEH - who made a wager between themselves
2) [line 1] YAKNIT - will anger
3) [line 3] CHAFAF - washed
4) [line 5] MI KAN HILLEL? - is there any Hillel here? (a very disrespectful manner with which to ask for the Nasi of Benei Yisrael)

5) [line 8] SEGALGALOS - (a) elongated; (b) round
6) [line 9] CHAYOS PIKCHOS - shrewd, clever midwives
7) [line 11] TARMODIYIN - the people of Tarmod (Palmyra, an oasis in the Syrian desert)
8) [line 12] TERUTOS - (a) tender, bleary; (b) round
9) [line 12] BEIN HA'CHOLOS - in a sandy region
10) [line 15] AFRAKIYIM - Africans
11) [line 16] BITZ'EI HA'MAYIM - swampland
12) [line 20] HEVEI ZAHIR B'RUCHACHA - be careful of haughtiness (which causes anger)
13) [line 28] AMAS HA'BINYAN - a stick that was one Amah long, used for planning and measuring buildings

14) [line 29] D'ALACH SANI - that is hateful to you
15) [line 30] ZIL GEMOR - go and learn
16) [line 35] TACHSISEI MALCHUS - royal tactics
17) [line 40] MAKLO - his staff
18) [line 40] TARMILO - his bag
19) [line 43] NIZDAVGU - they chanced to meet up with one another
20) [line 43] L'TORDEINU MIN HA'OLAM - to make us lose our world [to come]

21) [line 45] "V'HAYAH EMUNAS ITECHA CHOSEN YESHU'OS CHOCHMAS VA'DA'AS, YIR'AS HASH-M HI OTZARO" - "And the faith (of taking of your tithes etc.) of your fixed times, shall be a force of salvation, wisdom and knowledge; the fear of HaSh-m is His treasure" (Yeshayah 33:6)

*22*) [line 45] "EMUNAS", ZEH SEDER ZERA'IM - This Derashah is brought here because it mentions Yir'as Shamayim (fear of HaSh-m), which is related to the story of Hillel and the converts. Anavah (humbleness), the quality of Hillel, leads to the fear of HaSh-m (as it states in Mishley 22:4, Eikev Anavah [because of humbleness] Yir'as HaSh-m [there is fear of HaSh-m]; this is also apparent from the Gemara at the end of Sotah, Daf 49a, that states, "mishe'Mes Rebbi, Batlah *Anavah v'Yir'as Chet*" [when Rebbi died, *humbleness and fear of sin* ceased to exist,] as Rav Nisim Ga'on discusses at length on Berachos 56b -- see Insights there).

23) [line 47] SHE'MACHNISIN ADAM LA'DIN - that a person is brought in front of the Heavenly Tribunal

23) [line 47] TZIPISA L'YSHU'AH - Did you eagerly await salvation and the coming of Mashi'ach? i.e. the fulfillment of the promises of the prophets

24) [line 48] PILPALTA V'CHACHMAH - Did you delve in-depth into the wisdom of the Torah?

25) [line 49] CHUMTON - a sandy soil containing salty substances, used for the preservation of wheat


26) [line 1] GIZBAR - treasurer
27) [line 3] B'HAI AYIL - through which gate will he be able to enter?
28) [line 3] CHAVAL AL D'LEIS LEI DARTA - Woe to those who have no courtyard
29) [line 4] V'SAR'A L'DARTA AVID - and build a gate for the courtyard. Rebbi Yanai continues the parable, lamenting over those who only learn books of Yir'ah and do not learn Torah

30) [line 7] CHALIF V'AZIL - [Rebbi Yakov bar Acha] walked past them
31) [line 8] NEIKU MI'KAMEI - Let us stand up for him, as a sign of honor
32) [line 9] DACHIL CHET'IN - fears sin
33) [line 10] BAR ORAYAN - one who has learned much Torah
34) [line 12] TISTAYEM - you may conclude
35) [line 22] REICHO NODEF - his smell (the smell of the garlic) wafts
36) [line 22] YACHZOR V'YOCHAL - should he eat [garlic] again?

37) [line 23] "KI EIN CHARTZUBOS L'MOSAM, U'VARI ULAM" - "For there are no pangs at their death; their body is firm" (Tehilim 73:4). Allegorically, this means "Because they are not afraid and distressed by the specter of their death; rather their hearts are hardy like the entrance of the Ulam"

38) [line 24] LO DAYAN - it is not enough for them
39) [line 25] ULAM - the Hall of the Beis ha'Mikdash which stood before the Heichal - all entrances to the Mikdash were 10 Amos wide and 20 Amos high except for the entrance of the Ulam, which was 20 Amos wide and 40 Amos high)

40) [line 25] "ZEH DARKAM KESEL LAMO, V'ACHAREIHEM B'FIHEM YIRTZU SELA" - "This is their way in their folly; and their offspring who approve of their sayings." (Tehilim 49:14) Allegorically, this means, "The wicked know that their ways (Darkam) lead them to the grave ("Kirbam" of verse 12 is read "Kivram" - their grave), even so, they have fat over their kidneys (a symbol of stupidity, since the kidneys are considered by Chazal as the seat of advice), and of their afterlife (Gehinom) their mouths constantly speak soothingly"

41) [line 26] CHELEV AL KISLAM - fat on the top of their lower flanks, the location of the kidneys in Kosher animals (see Rashi to Vayikra 3:5)

(a) All acts of destruction on Shabbos are Patur Aval Asur (exempt from those punishments that apply to d'Oraisa transgressions, but the act is prohibited, and is liable to punishment mid'Rabanan), since the Melachos that were in the Mishkan were creative acts. The Melachah of Soser must be Al Menas Livnos (constructive) in order for it to be a d'Oraisa transgression.

(b) There is an opinion that the person who destroys is only liable if he intends to build in the same place. If he destroys in order to build somewhere else, he is Patur Aval Asur.

43) [line 34] L'HAVHAVAH - to singe it

44) [line 37] NIDAH
By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for seven days. It makes no difference whether she saw blood only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she can immerse in a Mikvah to become Tehorah if she has stopped seeing blood. (If she sees blood during the following eleven days, she becomes a Zavah.)

45) [line 37] CHALAH
Whenever a person kneads a dough made from one of the five species of grain (wheat, barley, oats, rye or spelt), he must separate a small portion to be given to the Kohen, as specified in Bamidbar 15:17-21. This portion is called Chalah. The requirement to separate Chalah with a Berachah only applies to a dough made from the volume of 43.2 Beitzim of grain (about 10 1/2 cups or 2.48 liters). An amount about half that much requires Chalah to be separated without a Berachah. A baker must separate 1/48 of his dough as Chalah, while a normal homeowner must separate 1/24.

46) [line 37] HADLAKAS HA'NER
(a) The candles lit on Friday before sunset were needed for Shlom Bayis (Gemara Daf 23b), so that families would not sit in the dark or trip over things in the dark on Friday night. Even though men and women are obligated in lighting the Shabbos candles, the custom is for women to light because they are in charge of running the house. The Berachah "Asher Kideshanu b'Mitzvosav v'Tzivanu l'Hadlik Ner Shel Shabbos" is recited after the candles are burning.

(b) Lighting candles for Shabbos is not optional, nor is it a Mitzvah. The Gemara (Daf 25b) calls it a Chovah (obligation). Tosfos (ibid. DH Hadlakas) explains that the obligation is to eat the Friday night meal by the light of the candles, which is part of Oneg Shabbos (enjoyment of the Shabbos). Rashi (ibid. DH Chovah) writes that it is part of Kavod Shabbos (honoring the Shabbos), since important meals are never eaten in the dark.

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