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Shabbos 23

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Gemara 23b [line 23]:
"d'Rebbi Avin ... d'Havah Ragil *bi'Shragei Tuva* ... d'Vei Nasha d'Rav
Shizvi ... d'Havah Ragil *bi'Shragei Tuva*"
Rebbi Avin's house was blessed with two sons who became Talmidei Chachamim
while Rav Shizvi's (father's or) father-in-law's house was only blessed
with one. Why the difference? Two reasons are given to explain this, and
they depend upon the correct Girsa in the Gemara. (Incidentally, the
manuscripts lack the word "Tuva" in both instances).

(a) The Rif, Rosh and Sefer ha'Itim in the name of "Yesh Mefarshim
ha'Girsa" are Gores in the case of Rebbi Avin, "d'Havah Ragili *b'Shragei*"
(plural) and in the case of Rav Shizvi, "Ragili *b'Shraga*" (singular).
Rebbi Avin was meticulous in both Ner Chanukah and Ner Shabbos, and
therefore merited to have two sons who became Talmidei Chachamim (see

(b) Tosfos DH Hachi Garsinan, however, is Gores in the case of Rebbi Avin,
"*d'Havu* Ragili b'Shraga," meaning Rebbi Avin and his wife. In Rav
Shizvi's case, Tosfos is Gores, "*d'Havas* Ragilah b'Shraga," which only
refers to Rav Shizvi's mother or mother-in-law. Therefore they only merited
to produce one Talmid Chacham. This Girsa is also found in Dikdukei Sofrim
#6, the Oxford manuscript and the manuscript of the Rif. This is also
Rashi's intent when he writes in DH b'Shraga that even the story of Rebbi
Avin refers only to Ner Shabbos, which is the Mitzvah of the woman of the
house. Only Rav Shizvi's mother or mother-in-law was meticulous with regard
to Ner Shabbos in their house, while in Rebbi Avin's house, Rebbi Avin
himself took care to help his wife in the Mitzvah.

[2] Rashi 23b DH u'Mipnei Bitul Aniyim:
The words "Masai *Yiktzor Osam*"
should be "Masai *Yekatzeh Osah*" (RASHASH)

1) [line 1] ASHASHIS - a lantern
2) [line 13] ACHSENA'I - a lodger
3) [line 14] BEI RAV - in the Yeshiva
4) [line 14] MISHTATEIFNA BI'FRITEI BAHADEI USHPIZA - I would make myself a partner with the host by giving him some money

5) [line 16] B'GO BEISA'I - in my house
6) [line 18] MIN HA'MUVCHAR - is the best way to do the Mitzvah (lit. is the choicest kind)

7) [line 18] ME'REISH - at first
8) [line 18] HAVAH MEHADER MAR - Rabah would try to obtain
9) [line 19] MISHCHA D'SHUMSHEMEI - sesame oil
10) [line 19] MASHACH NEHOREI TEFEI - its light lasts longer
11) [line 21] MISHCHA D'ZEISA - olive oil
12) [line 21] TZALIL NEHOREI TEFEI - its light is clearer and brighter
13) [line 23] L'GABEL - to mix the soot of olive oil with a small amount of olive oil
14) [line 24] L'ASHEN - to produce soot of olive oil
15) [line 28] SERAFIN - saps
16) [line 29] SERAF KETAF - the sap of the balsam tree, Commiphora Opobalsamum, which grows wild in Yemen and around Mecca

17) [line 39] DEMAI
(a) Produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance - see Berachos 47b) is referred to as Demai ("Da Mai?" = "what is this?").
(b) Terumas Ma'aser, and Ma'aser Sheni must be separated from this produce since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have separated them before selling it. Terumah Gedolah, however, (because of its stringency) is presumed to have been separated. Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani are separated from the produce, but eaten by the owner (in keeping with the principle "ha'Motzi Mechavero Alav ha'Re'ayah").

18) [line 39] ME'ARVIN

(a) According to Torah law, in a courtyard which has in it houses owned by different people, all of the neighbors may transfer objects from their houses to the courtyard and into other houses on Shabbos. Even though each house is a separate Reshus ha'Yachid, it is permissible to move objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another. Such is also the case when several *courtyards* open on a dead-end alley, and when a city is completely walled. (RAMBAM Hilchos Eruvin 1:1)

(b) King Shlomo decreed that transferring objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another is forbidden, unless an Eruv Chatzeiros (lit. a mixing of the courtyards) is created on Friday, before Shabbos begins. (Shabbos 14b, Eruvin 21b). (The equivalent of an Eruv Chatzeiros for an alley or a city is called a Shituf Mava'os.) This is accomplished by all of the neighbors collectively setting aside a loaf of bread, in one common container, in one of the houses of the courtyard, or one of the courtyards of the alleyway. This shows that all neighbors have an equal share in all of the Reshuyos ha'Yachid, just as they all have a share in that bread. They can be considered one Reshus again. (In the case of an alley or city, any food is permissible to use as an Eruv, except for water, salt and mushrooms.) (RAMBAM ibid. 1:4-9)

(c) A person is only allowed to travel a distance of 2000 Amos from his city or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos. If he wants to travel more than 2000 Amos, he must make an Eruv Techumin. This is done by placing enough of one food that would be used for two meals near the end of his 2000 Amos, in the direction in which he wishes to travel. The location where his food is placed is considered his new dwelling for that Shabbos, and he may travel 2000 Amos in any direction from there.

(d) Food made from Demai could be used for an Eruv Chatzeiros, a Shituf Mava'os and an Eruv Techumin

19) [line 39] MISHTATFIN
For an explanation of Shituf Mava'os, see above, #18a-b.

20) [line 43] D'LO L'ZILZULEI BAH - so that they should not treat it (Yom Tov Sheni) disrespectfully, as if it was not holy

21) [line 45] CHASHADA - suspicion (that he did not light candles)
22) [line 46] BENEI MASA - the residents of the city
*23*) [line 49] AMAR RABBI SHIMON - (Rebbi Shimon used to suggest logical reasons for the Torah's commandments - "Darish Ta'ama di'Kra" - as in Yevamos 23a)

24) [line 50] PE'AH
The corner, or end of the harvest must be left in the field for the poor, as it states "Lo Sechaleh Pe'as Sadecha Liktzor ... le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam" (Vayikra 19:9-10) - Do not completely harvest the corner of your field ... you shall leave them for the poor and the stranger.

25) [last line] SHA'AH PENUYAH - a time when the poor people are not around


26) [line 3] TAVO ME'EIRAH - a curse should come
27) [line 7] SHNEI PIYOS - two holes for wicks
28) [line 9] V'HIKIFAH PESILOS - and he put wicks all around it
29) [line 12] NER BEISO - the candle a person is obligated to light for Friday night (Ner Shabbos)

30) [line 13] SHELOM BEISO - peace in his household
31) [line 17] PIRSUMEI NISA - publicizing the miracle
32) [line 22] GARVEI YAYIN - kegs of wine
33) [line 23] CHALIF V'TANI - would always pass by
34) [line 24] REBBI AVIN NAGRA - Rebbi Avin the Carpenter
35) [line 24] CHAZA D'HAVA RAGIL BI'SHRAGEI TUVA - he saw that he was accustomed to light many Shabbos candles

36) [line 25] GAVREI RAVREVEI - great people
37) [line 28] D'VEI NASHA D'RAV SHIZVI - of the house of the father of Rav Shizvi; alt. of the house of the father-in-law of Rav Shizvi

38) [line 37] D'RACHIM RABANAN - a person who loves the Chachamim
39) [line 37] D'MOKIR RABANAN - a person who honors the Chachamim
40) [line 38] CHASNEVASA - sons-in-law
41) [line 40] MISHTAM'AN MILEI - his words will be heeded
*42*) [line 40] V'LO B'SHEMEN SEREIFAH - (The Gemara interrupts the discussion of the laws of Chanukah in order to finish explaining our Mishnah, before resuming the Chanukah discussion - see Insights)

43) [line 42] TERUMAH SHE'NITME'AH
(a) After a crop is harvested, and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop, which he gives to a Kohen. Kohanim and members of their households are allowed to eat Terumah, as long as they are Tehorim.

(b) If Terumah becomes Temei'ah, it must be burned. The Kohanim may benefit from it while it is being burned, such as using it as fuel for a fire. Oil of Terumah that became Tamei may be used by the Kohanim for light on weekdays.

(a) Kodshim and Terumah that become Temei'im must be burned, as the Torah states, "ba'Esh Yisaref" (Vayikra 7:19). However, it is prohibited to burn them on Yom Tov. The Gemara (Daf 24b) brings four ways to learn this from the Pesukim.

(b) Burning for the sake of preparing food (l'Tzorech Ochel Nefesh) is permitted on Yom Tov, as long as an existing fire is used. The Gemara Beitzah 12b teaches that since it is permitted l'Tzorech, burning in general (she'Lo l'Tzorech) is also permitted. However, there must be at least some benefit (Tzorech ha'Yom Ketzas) that is derived from it on that day of Yom Tov.

(c) Since burning Kodshim Temei'im is a Mitzvah, if a person burns them on Yom Tov, the benefit that he derives is considered subordinate to the Mitzvah he performs. There was no Tzorech ha'Yom at all. Therefore burning Kodshim is prohibited mid'Oraisa (TOSFOS 24b DH Lefi)

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