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Shabbos 22

1) [line 2] SUKAH
(a) Jewish males above the age of thirteen are commanded to sit in a Sukah (a small hut or booth) for the seven days of the holiday of Sukos, as it states, "ba'Sukos Teishevu Shiv'as Yamim" - "You shall sit in Sukos for seven days" (Vayikra 23:42). Women are exempt because it is a Mitzvas Aseh sheha'Zeman Gerama. Sleeping, eating meals and all respectable daily tasks must be done in the Sukah instead of in one's house. Eating snacks and doing temporary duties are permissible outside of the Sukah.

(b) The main part of the Sukah is the roof, or Sechach, for which the Sukah is named. The Sechach is taken from materials that once grew in the ground such as cut branches, wood or bamboo. They must be detached at the time that the Sukah is built, and they cannot be Mekabel Tum'ah (receive Tum'ah). If they have any Beis Kibul (a part that acts as a container), they are invalid, since utensils are Mekabel Tum'ah.

(c) The Sukah may not be less than ten Tefachim or more than twenty Amos high. The length and width may not be less than seven Tefachim. At least three walls are required, but as long as two adjacent walls are complete, a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai states that the third wall need not be wider than a Tefach (see RAMBAM Hilchos Sukah 4:2).

2) [line 2] MAVOY
A Mavoy is an alleyway which is enclosed on three sides, through which the people of the surrounding courtyards must pass in order to go out to the street (Reshus ha'Rabim). Although mid'Oraisa such a Mavoy is a Reshus ha'Yachid, nevertheless, the Chachamim prohibited carrying objects in it a distance of four Amos or more. This decree was enacted because of its similarity to a Reshus ha'Rabim, since many families make use of a single Mavoy. Carrying in a Mavoy is only permitted if a beam (Korah) that is a Tefach thick is placed horizontally above the entrance of the Mavoy, or if a stick (Lechi) is placed vertically against one of the walls by the entrance of the Mavoy. The Korah must not be placed higher than 20 Amos, so that it will be noticeable. These signs signal the border of Reshus ha'Rabim and Reshus ha'Yachid.

3) [line 13] L'HARTZOS MA'OS - to count money (coins)

4) [line 17] YECHASEH
There is an obligation to cover the blood of all wild animals (Chayos), and birds that are slaughtered, as stated in Vayikra (17:13) "v'Ish Ish ... Asher Yatzud Tzeid Chayah O Of Asher Yei'achel, v'Shafach Es Damo v'Chisahu b'Afar." The blood must be covered from above and below with earth or any similar substance. The Mitzvah does not apply to domesticated animals (Behemos), which may be slaughtered without covering the blood.

5) [line 20] L'HISTAPEK - to use for oneself (lit. to supply oneself)
6) [line 20] NOYEI SUKAH - food used as decorations for the Sukah
7) [line 22] MAREI D'AVRAHAM!! - Master of Avraham!! (exclamation)
8) [line 24] ITRAH - he adorned it
9) [line 24] KERAMIM - (O.F. ovrez) material adorned with colorful needlework
10) [line 25] SADININ HA'METZUYARIN - sheets adorned with colorful designs
11) [line 25] AFARSEKIN - peaches (According to Y. Feliks, Plant World of the Bible, Ramat Gan 1968, the correct Girsa should be APASTEKIN, which are a type of nut, such as the Pistachio. Since peaches are a summer fruit, they are not available on Sukos.)

12) [line 26] PARCHILEI ANAVIM - twigs with clusters of grapes
13) [line 26] ATAROS SHEL SHIBALIM - wreaths made of stalks of grain
14) [line 30] AVUHON D'CHULHU DAM - the source for all of them is the Mitzvah of Kisuy ha'Dam (covering the blood - see above, #4)

(a) An act which is done for a certain purpose (which will be accomplished without transgressing a Melachah), but which may result in a Melachah being inadvertently performed, it is called a Davar she'Eino Miskavein. The example brought in our Gemara is dragging a bench or chair on soft ground, where a furrow may possibly be created while dragging. (Digging a furrow is included in the Melachah of Choresh, plowing). Rebbi Yehudah prohibits performing such an action, since it may result in a Melachah. Rebbi Shimon disagrees, claiming that even though a Melachah may result from this action, since the Melachah will come about without intent, the action is permitted. Rebbi Shimon therefore permits a person to drag a bench across a dirt floor as long as he does not intend to make a furrow.

(b) Rebbi Shimon and Rebbi Yehudah disagree only if it is not clear that a furrow will be created (i.e., a Melachah will be done). If it is inevitable for a furrow to be created, the act is prohibited even according to Rebbi Shimon -- even though the person dragging the bench is not the least bit interested in the furrow, and does not intend to create it. Such a situation, in which a Melachah will inevitably be accomplished, is referred to as "Pesik Reisha v'Lo Yamus."

(c) A person must have specific *intent* to do a Melachah on Shabbos in order to be liable for punishment or to be required to bring a Korban. Therefore, if a person drags a bench and a furrow *does* result, even Rebbi Yehudah will agree that the person who dragged it is not obligated to bring a Korban, since the furrow was created accidentally. Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon argue only as to whether it is permitted *in the first place* to perform an action that may result in a Melachah.

16) [line 37] CHARITZ - furrow, groove
17) [line 38] LO TATZISU LEI - do not listen to him
18) [line 39] D'KA MAKCHISH MITZVAH - he diminishes the Mitzvah (by taking away some of the oil; it also appears as if he is taking away some of the light)


19) [line 1] MA'ASER SHENI - (a) coins on which Ma'aser Sheni was redeemed (RASHI);
(b) fruit that is Ma'aser Sheni (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni 3:19, based on the Tosefta Ma'aser Sheni 1:1. It seems that he is not Gores the words "Sela Shel," which is also the Girsa of the Vilna Ga'on to Daf 22a)

19) [line 1] EIN SHOKLIN K'NEGDO - it is forbidden to weigh [coins of Chulin] against them

20) [line 4] KINSA - a thin stick of wood

21) [line 6] LO YECHAVEN MISHKELOSAV - (a) lest he discover that the coins of Chulin weighed more than he expected or were of better quality than he expected, and he decide not to redeem the coins of Ma'aser Sheni on them (RASHI);
(b) lest he use the fruits as a standard weight for a month or more, not realizing that their weight is constantly decreasing. He may come to weigh out coins to redeem *other* Ma'aser Sheni, and the coins will be of insufficient weight because of the drop in weight of the first Ma'aser Sheni fruits. He will then redeem the other Ma'aser Sheni for less than its value (RAMBAM ibid., as explained by Mahari Kurkus).

22) [line 8] "MI'CHUTZ L'FAROCHES HA'EDUS YA'AROCH [OSO AHARON]" (Vayikra 24:3) - "[Aharon] shall arrange them (the lamps of the Menorah) outside of the curtain (Paroches) of testimony

23) [line 11] L'ORO - (a) by His (HaSh-m's) light; (b) by its (the cloud pillar's) light (TOSFOS DH v'Chi)

24) [line 13] K'MIDAS CHAVROSEHA - the same measure as the other lamps

The Ner ha'Ma'aravi remained lit during the time that Benei Yisrael wandered in the desert. The other lamps were lit in the evening from the existing Ner ha'Ma'aravi.

26) [line 14] U'VAH HAYAH MESAYEM
(a) According to Rashi, this refers to the *Hatavah* (preparation) of the lamps. The Kohen cleaned out the ashes and left-over oil (the process called Dishun) from the lamps in the morning after they went out. He replaced them with fresh oil and wicks. Since the Ner ha'Ma'aravi remained burning all day, its Hatavah was done last, in the evening before the lamps were lit again. The Kohen would lift the burning wick or place it in a bowl until he replaced the oil and wick, which he lit from the still-burning wick. He then lit the other lamps from it.

(b) Tosfos DH u'Vah, citing Riva, asks that if it was possible to light the other lamps from the existing Ner ha'Ma'aravi by removing the burning wick from its lamp, the Gemara no longer has a question on Rav. The Mitzvah is neither slighted nor diminished. Tosfos claims that it was impossible to remove the wick without it becoming extinguished. The Kohen would light the other candles from the still-burning Ner ha'Ma'aravi. It was then extinguished, its oil and wick were replaced, and it was lit from the other lamps. Tosfos concludes that the phrase "u'Vah Hayah Mesayem" means that the Ner ha'Ma'aravi was the last lamp of *Hadlakah* (to be lit).

*27*) [line 16] KASHYA BEIN L'MAN D'AMAR - Rav *himself* says here that the *wicks* of the Menorah were lit one from another, which would seem to contradict his statement that the wicks of Chanukah may not be lit one from another.

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