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Shabbos 19

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Rashi 19a DH Kutach ha'Bavli [at the top of the page]:
"Le'echol *Yachad*"
The word "Yachad" does not appear in Rashi Pesachim 44a

[2] Rashi 19b DH Chad Matzil:
The words "Ochlin u'Mashkin Mipnei ha'Deleikah *Harbeh*"
should be "Ochlin u'Mashkin *Harbeh* Mipnei ha'Deleikah"

1) [line 1] KUTACH HA'BAVLI - a dip which is prepared by cooking milk with bread and salt

*2*) [line 1] ASUR LIMKOR - (Rebbi Yehudah is following the opinion of Beis Shamai, according to Rashi Pesachim 21b DH Shloshim Yom)

*3*) [line 3] LIFNEEI HA'KELEV - even if the dog does not belong to him, or is ownerless, it is a Mitzvah to feed dogs, since they are always hungry (MAGEN AVRAHAM ORACH CHAYIM 324:7)

4) [line 3] NATLO V'YATZA, EIN NIZKAKIN LO - if the dog took the food out of the courtyard before Shabbos, the person who gave it the food is no longer responsible (That is, if the dog brings it to another person's yard on Shabbos, it is not considered as if he sent the food to another person's property intentionally).

5) [line 6] RAMI ALEI - he is responsible [to feed it]
*6*) [line 8] B'REVI'I UV'CHAMISHI MUTAR - this ruling is consistent with the opinion of Beis Hillel. It is prohibited to rent out utensils to non-Jews on Friday even for a lengthy period of time because it seems like the Jew is taking rental money for Shabbos. Beis Shamai, however, rule that to rent utensils on Wednesday or Thursday is likewise prohibited if the non-Jew will keep them over Shabbos, because of the prohibition of Shevisas Keilim (see Background to 18:9 and see TOSFOS DH Lo Yaskir).

*7*) [line 14] KOTZETZ LO DAMIM - that is, the Jew must set a specific wage on Friday, by telling the non-Jew, "I will pay you such and such a wage for delivering this letter." If the Jew says, "I will pay you adequately," without mentioning a wage, it is also permitted. The Poskim add that even if the non-Jew delivers the letter without any compensation, it is permitted, since the non-Jew receives Tovas Hana'ah by doing a favor for the Jew.

The two instances that are prohibited are: (1) If the Jew offers to pay on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. The non-Jew does not get paid for the delivery of this particular letter, and it is considered as if he is acting as the Shali'ach (agent) of the Jew (RASHBA, RAN).
(2) If the Jew says, "I will pay you," and does not mention that the payment will be than adequate. In this case the Jew is able to pay a minimal amount, and therefore the non-Jew is obviously not delivering the letter because of the promised payment. (Rather, he delivers it out of fear of the Jew, feeling that he must do as the Jew wishes - M. Kornfeld). He is like a Shali'ach of the Jew, which is prohibited (BI'UR HALACHAH 252, end of DH Im Katzatz).

8) [line 20] BEI DAVAR - (a) the residence of the ruler, to whom the letter is presumably addressed (RASHI);
(b) the residence of a postmaster who distributes mail to the city (RAMBAM, ROSH and RISHONIM)

9) [line 23] POSEK IMO AL MENAS LISHBOS - he stipulates with those in charge of the voyage that he will rest on Shabbos

10) [line 25] MI'TZOR L'TZIDON - from Tyre to Sidon, which are located on the southern coast of Lebanon, which is a voyage of less than a day by boat

11) [line 26] TZARIN - start a siege
12) [line 35] MANA DI'TZVI'A - a colored garment
13) [line 35] KATZRA - a clothes-washer
14) [line 36] KEDE'CHIVRA - the same price as a white garment
15) [line 37] KEVAR KADMUCH RABANAN - the Chachamim preempted you
16) [line 38] B'MISHCHA NEISIV LEI - he should measure it before he gives it to him
17) [line 39] D'IY TAFEI - if it is larger
18) [line 40] MATCHEI - he stretched it
19) [line 40] KAVTZEI - he shrunk it
20) [LINE 44] MIDI D'ASI MI'MEILA - automatically; something that can be set before Shabbos which continues by itself, e.g. the wine and olive presses

21) [line 45] SHUM - garlic
22) [line 45] BOSER - unripe grapes in the beginning of their development
23) [line 45] MELILOS - ears of grain which have not completely ripened
24) [line 45] SHE'RISKAN - that he crushed


25) [line 2] CHALOS DEVASH - honeycombs
26) [line 5] DME'IKARA OCHEL UL'VASOF OCHEL - which have the status of a food initially and after they are crushed

27) [line 14] LAV ITMAR ALAH - was it not taught in reference to it [the following]?

28a) [line 15] MECHUSARIN DICHAH - if they have not been pounded
b) [line 16] SHECHIKAH - pulverizing

29) [line 18] SHEMEN SHEL BADADIN - (a) the leftover oil found in the corners of the olive press, that belongs to the presser (RASHI);
(b) the oil that flows on Shabbos from the olives that were placed under the beam of the olive press on Friday (TOSFOS DH Shemen)

30) [line 19] MACHATZALOS SHEL BADADIN - the mats of the olive pressers
31) [line 20] KARKEI D'ZUZEI - a pair of mats used to cover merchandise on a boat
*32*) [line 21] EZ L'CHALAVAH - That is, a goat that was set aside specifically for its milk and not to be eaten. Since milking is prohibited on Yom Tov, he has demonstrated that he will not use that goat on Yom Tov and it is classified as Muktzah (lit. set aside at the brink [of one's intentions for use])

33) [line 22] TOREI D'RIDYA - oxen used for plowing
34) [line 22] TAMREI D'ISKA - dates set aside for selling
35) [line 24] ORI - who ruled [with regard to Muktzah]
36) [line 25] CHARTA D'ARGIZ - the city of Charta which was built by Argiz the sorcerer, located adjacent to Baghdad

37) [line 25] SHAMTEI - he put him in Cherem

38) [line 28] MATZIL B'CHAD MANA
(a) The Gemara (Daf 120a) poses a contradiction in Mishnayos. In one Mishnah we are taught that on Shabbos, it is only permissible to save from a fire enough food for three meals. In another Mishnah we are taught that it is permissible to save more than that. *Rav Huna* and *Rabah bar Zavda* argue as to the specifics of these cases.

(b) According to *Rav Huna*, if one piles all the food items into *one utensil*, much more than the food for three meals may be saved. However, if *many utensils* are used, then only food for three meals may be saved. He prohibits doing unnecessary work (such as carrying out an added utensil) when saving objects from a fire. (According to TOSFOS DH v'Chad, the prohibition of the latter case only applies if one takes out each utensil individually. RASHI, however, rules that even if they are wrapped together in one large bundle and are taken out at the same time, the prohibition still applies.)

(c) According to Rabah bar Zavda, a person may take out as much food as he can, in as many utensils as he wants, as long as he puts them in the *local courtyard* in which the house that is on fire is located. If he would like to put them in *another courtyard* (even in a single utensil), he may only take out enough food for three meals.

(d) Our Sugya discusses a case where a person takes objets out to the *same courtyard*, and the Amora'im disagree as to whether he must use only one utensil (Rav Huna) or may use even more (Rabah bar Zavda).

39) [line 33] CHARARAH - a flat cake baked on coals
40) [line 33] SHE'YIKARMU - they will form a crust
41) [line 35] MESHALSHELIN - we lower
42) [last line] MA'ACHIZIN ES HA'UR - they may begin to light
43) [last line] MEDURAS BEIS HA'MOKED - the fire of the Fireplace Room, a large, domed room in the Azarah (courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash) where Kohanim could warm themselves during the service. (They became chilled easily while working barefoot outdoors, on cold, marble floors.)

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