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Shabbos 16

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Gilyon ha'Shas 16a DH Avdu Behu:
The words "Nidah *30a*"
should be "Nidah *34a*"

[2] Gemara 16b [line 8]:
"Ma'aseh b'Shal Tziyon"
In Dikdukei Sofrim #80 and the Chidushei ha'Ran, this appears as one word
"Shaltziyon" (and there are those who pronounce it "Shelatziyon".) She is
also known as Shelomtzion ha'Malka. It would seem that she is the wife of
Yanai ha'Melech who was the sister of Shimon Ben Shetach (Berachos 48a),
the Tana who made the decree mentioned in our Sugya. She was also known as
Salome Alexandra.

1) [line 1] KLEI NESER - (a) utensils made from the crystals of alum (RASHI); (b) utensils stuck together with alum (ARUCH)

2) [line 2] MITAM'IN U'METAM'IN - they may become Tamei and may make the objects inside them Temei'im

3) [line 3] ACHOREIHEN - the inside of their stands

(a) Metal utensils that become Temei'im need to be immersed in a Mikvah. If they are pierced or broken and are no longer useful, they become Tehorim. Shimon ben Shetach decreed that when broken metal utensils that are Temei'im are rebuilt, they return to their previous status of Tum'ah.

(b) The Gemara (16b) gives three reasons for his decree: (1) so that Mei Chatas (the water that contains the ashes of the Parah Adumah) not become obsolete. For example, a person owns a utensil which comes in contact with a dead body. It must be sprinkled with Mei Chatas on the third and seventh days of the Taharah process. He would rather pierce it, fix it, and be able to use his utensil on the same day that it became Tamei. (2) lest people pierce their utensils with a hole *less* than the required size to render them Tehorim, and mistakenly think that they have rendered them Tehorim. (3) lest people think that a utensil that becomes Tamei (through Tum'ah other than a dead body) can be immersed in a Mikvah and used immediately, without waiting for nightfall.

(c) The Gemara asks with regard to glassware, that even though they have been broken in the interim (which renders them Tehorim), why do they not receive their previous status of Tum'ah when they are rebuilt, as is the case with metal utensils?

5) [line 8] KLEI MATCHOS - The six types of metal utensils which are listed in the Torah (Bamidbar 31:22) are gold, silver, copper, iron, tin and lead. If they become Temei'im, they can be immersed in a Mikvah to make them Tehorim again. If they are pierced or broken and are no longer useful, they become Tehorim. If broken metal utensils that are Temei'im are rebuilt, they return to their previous status of Tum'ah.

6) [line 17] ACHISU BAH RABANAN TUM'AH - the Chachamim decreed that their previous Tum'ah should return to them


7) [line 2] NIR'EH TOCHO K'VARO - (a) since its inner surface is visible from the outside, the outer surface has the same laws as the inner surface, and *does* become Tamei, unlike the outer surface of earthenware utensils (RASHI);
(b) any Tum'ah which is on its outside surface appears to be inside; it therefore has the same laws as the inside surface (RABEINU CHANANEL)

8) [line 10] TZOREF - smith; smelter
9) [line 10] RITCHAN - (O.F. solder) he soldered them
10) [line 11] MISHUM GEDER MEI CHATAS - lest the Mitzvah of sprinkling Mei Chatas (the water that contains the ashes of the Parah Adumah) be forgotten (see above, #4b:1)

11) [line 18] RATZFINHU MIRTZAF - he totally smashed them
12) [line 20] TZINOR - the pipe or gutter that was formed by setting a beam in the ground and hewing a channel into it, which is used to lead rainwater into a Mikvah

13) [line 22] KLEI GELALIM - utensils made from animal dung (RASHI throughout Shas; here Rashi appears to translate Gelalim as marble). See Insights

14a) [line 28] KISHUR AVIM - when the clouds are gathered together before a rain
b) [line 29] PIZUR AVIM - when the clouds are scattered

15) [line 34] BATZREI LEHU - there are less [than eighteen]

(a) The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid or not. After the times of the Mishnah, they were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of gentiles.

(b) The Chachamim decreed that the daughters of the Kusim have the status of Nidos from birth. TOSFOS (Nidah 32a, DH Rebbi Meir) explains the disagreement of Rebbi Meir and Rebbi Yosi as to the nature of the decree. According to Rebbi Yosi, the Rabanan gave Benos Kusim the status of Nidos in order to prevent us from mingling with them. According to Rebbi Meir, the Rabanan gave them the status of Nidos from an early age because the Kusim did not accept the Torah Law that a one-day-old girl becomes a Nidah through a discharge of blood, and we suspect every Bas Kusi of having had a discharge of blood. See Insights to Nidah 31:2.

17) [line 36] MEVI'IN ES HA'TUM'AH
Any covered space that is a Tefach by a Tefach square and a Tefach high is considered to be an "Ohel." If a k'Zayis from a corpse is anywhere in an Ohel, Tumah spreads out in all directions to fill the entire Ohel but remains inside the Ohel. Any people, metal utensils (covered or uncovered) or food and drink that are in the Ohel become Tamei. However, Klei Cheres only become Tamei when Tum'ah enters them. Therefore, when they are covered with a Tzammid Pesil (a tight seal) they cannot become Tamei even if they are in the Ohel.

18) [line 37] B'OVI HA'MARDEI'A - the width of the handle of a plow, which has a circumference of a Tefach

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