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Shabbos 15

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Rashi 15a DH Lismoch:
The words "Pelugsa Hi *d'Veis Shamai u'Veis Hillel*"
should be "Pelugsa Hi *d'Shamai v'Hillel*"

1) [line 3] HUSHVU - they agreed

2) [line 6] MI'KAV CHALAH - The Tana'im disagree as to the amount of flour needed for the Mitzvah of Chalah. A table of volume equivalents follows:

  • 1 Eifah = 3 Se'ah
  • 1 Se'ah = 2 Hin
  • 1 Hin = 3 Kav
  • 1 Kav = 4 Lug
  • 1 Lug = 6 Beitzim
  • 1 Beitzah = approx. 57.6 cc or 1.95 fl. oz.
3) [line 6] CHALAH
Whenever a person kneads a dough made from one of the five species of grain (wheat, barley, oats, rye or spelt), he must separate a small portion to be given to the Kohen, as specified in Bamidbar 15:17-21. This portion is called Chalah. The requirement to separate Chalah with a Berachah only applies to a dough made from the volume of 43.2 Beitzim of grain (about 10 1/2 cups or 2.48 liters). An amount about half that much requires Chalah to be separated without a Berachah. A baker must separate 1/48 of his dough as Chalah, while a normal homeowner must separate 1/24.

4) [line 8] MISHE'HIGDILU HA'MIDOS - when the measures were enlarged (depreciation of coinage was expressed as appreciation of measures)

5) [line 11] MAYIM SHE'UVIM
Only water which never entered a vessel (non-drawn water) may be used to fill a Mikvah. Once there are already 40 Se'ah of such water in the Mikvah, drawn water may be added. Before there are 40 Se'ah in the Mikvah, if three Lugim of drawn water fell into the Mikvah they render the Mikvah invalid.

6) [line 14] GARDIYIM MI'SHA'AR HA'ASHPAH - weavers from the area of Dung Gate, through which all the garbage would be removed from the city

7) [line 18] DAYAN SHA'ATAN
(a) The Mishnah in Maseches Nidah (Daf 2a) discusses the case of a woman who finds Dam Nidah during an internal check for menstrual blood with a Bedikah-cloth. The question in the Mishnah is whether we are to assume that the blood that was found is fresh (Dayan Sha'atan - it is enough to consider her Temei'ah from then on) or whether it had been there for some time, in which case the woman will be judged to be Temei'ah retroactively from the time the blood reached the vagina

(b) The Gemara (Nidah 3b) concludes that even according to those who judge the woman to be Temei'ah retroactively, this is only a Chumrah d'Rabanan with regard to Terumah and Kodshim. With regard to making her husband and Chulin Temei'im, and with regard to her status mid'Oraysa, she is Tehorah, since she has a Chezkas Taharah.

8) [line 19] MI'PEKIDAH LI'PEKIDAH - from the last time which she checked until the current Bedikah

9) [line 21] ME'ES L'ES MEMA'ETES AL YAD MI'PEKIDAH LI'PEKIDAH - if the previous Bedikah was done more than 24 hours ago, we only consider her to be Temei'ah retroactively for the last 24 hours.

10) [line 23] LISMOCH
Semichah refers to the Mitzvah for a person to press his hands with all his might on the head of his sacrifice before it is slaughtered, as described in Vayikra (1:4). Not all Korbanos require Semichah. Shamai and Hillel disagreed as to whether one is allowed to do Semichah on Yom Tov.

11) [line 24] HEICHAH D'LEIKAH PELUGSA D'RABVASA BA'HADAIHU - where the great Rabanim before Hillel and Shamai did not also argue in the same matter

12) [line 25] HA'BOTZER LA'GAS
(a) All foods become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah, but only after they first become wet. Making foods wet in a manner that enables them to become Tamei is called "Hechsher." From then on, even after they dry, they can still become Tamei. Seven liquids can enable foods to become Tamei: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood and honey.

(b) The food can only become Tamei if the owner of the food was pleased that his food became wet. This is learned from the Pasuk (Vayikra 11:38) "v'Chi Yutan Mayim Al Zera..." ("If water has been placed on seeds and then the dead body [of a Sheretz] fell upon them, the seeds are Tamei".) The word "Yutan" in the Pasuk is written without a Vav, just like the word "Yiten" -- "he places." However, it is read "Yutan" -- "it was placed." From this we learn that water or other liquids that fall on the food must be desirable to the owner of the food, as though he himself applied them.

(c) Shamai and Hillel disagree as to whether the liquid that flows from the grapes at the time that they are picked is Machshir the grapes or not. Their argument applies to grapes that are being picked in order to press them into wine.

13) [line 26] KA SHASIK LEI HILLEL L'SHAMAI - Hillel eventually was silent and agreed to Shamai

14) [line 34] MALCHUS HA'RESHA'AH - the wicked kingdom, Rome
15) [line 37] CHANUYOS - a place on Har ha'Bayis or in Yerushalayim
16) [line 39] DINEI KENASOS - cases of fines, e.g. Kefel (double payment) for theft and Arba'ah v'Chamishah (the payment of four and five times) when one steals and slaughters a sheep or cow, respectively

17) [line 40] DINEI NEFASHOS - capital cases


18) [line 1] GUSHA - the land
19) [line 2] AVIRA - the air
20) [line 9] USHA - a city in the Galil

21) [line 10] SAFEK BEIS HA'PRAS There are three types of Beis ha'Pras:
(a) a field in which a grave was plowed over, scattering the bones in all directions;
(b) a field in which there is a grave which we cannot find;
(c) a field on the edge of a town where a corpse was brought for burial. In the latter instance, we suspect that: (1) part of the corpse may have dislodged and remains in the field, or (2) the corpse was inadvertently left there and not taken to a cemetery as all. Our Gemara is discussing the second type (b). If Terumah entered the Beis ha'Pras, it is burned.

The Bartenura offers three explanations as to why the word "Pras" was used:

(a) the Tum'ah *spreads* (Pores) out in all directions
(b) the bones are *broken* (Perusim)
(c) peoples *feet* (Parsos) stay away from there
Bigdei Am ha'Aretz (the clothes of an unlearned person) are considered Temei'im. Chazal were concerned that any article of his clothing may be Tamei Medras because his wife sat on them when she was a Nidah. We burn the Terumah that touches the clothes of an Am ha'Aretz.

When a utensil is found and we are not certain that it is Tahor, any Terumah that touches it is burned.

24) [line 12] SAFEK HA'ROKIN
When saliva is found on Terumah and we are not sure if it came from a Zav or not, the Terumah is burned.

Rashi points out that this Safek is more stringent than the previous ones, since we burn Terumah also in the case of a Sefek Sefekah. We do not know if the urine came from a person or an animal. Even if it came from a person, perhaps he was Tahor. Nevertheless, the Terumah is burned.

26) [line 23] TECHILAS BERIYASAN MIN HA'CHOL - their source material is sand

27) [line 24] KLEI CHERES
(a) *Klei Cheres* are clay and earthenware utensils. They only become Tamei when Tum'ah enters them (even though it does not touch them). Therefore, when they are covered with a Tzamid Pesil (a tight seal) they cannot become Tamei even if they are in the Ohel of a Mes, as is stated in Bamidbar 19:15. If they do become Tamei, they make any object that enters them Tamei, even if the object did not touch their inside surface.

(b) If the clay and earthenware utensils become Tamei, they remain so until they are broken beyond use. Immersing them in a Mikvah does not change their status. See Chart #4.

28) [line 26] ZEFES - pitch
29) [line 26] MOR - myrrh
30) [line 28] AVAR - lead
31) [line 29] HA'MA'AMID - the substance that supports it; i.e. is responsible for it remaining an unbroken utensil

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