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Sanhedrin 97

SANHEDRIN 96-100 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the third Yahrzeit of her father, Reb Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner), who passed away 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Talmud study serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah


(a) Rav Nachman asked Rebbi Yitzchak whether he had heard when bar Nifli was due to arrive.
Who was 'bar Nifli'? Why was he called by that name?

(b) Rebbi Yitzchak citing Rebbi Yochanan, replied that the generation of Mashi'ach will witness a diminishing of Talmidei-Chachamim (or of their stature). What else, besides a longing that will end in grief and sighing, will be the hallmark of that generation?

(a) The Beraisa describes the Sh'mitah-cycle of Mashi'ach.
If the first year will witness rain on some cities but not on others, and the second year, acute famine, what will the third year bring? Why will the Torah-scholars forget the Torah they have learned?

(b) If the fourth year will be a year of plenty, though limited, what will the fifth year be like?

(c) The sixth year will witness Kolos.
What might 'Kolos' mean?

(d) The seventh year will consist of wars.
What about the year after the Sh'mitah?

(a) Rav Yosef asked in surprise that many Sh'mitos had seen wars, yet Mashi'ach had not yet arrived?
What did Abaye reply?

(b) What is the significance of the Pasuk in Tehilim that some versions quote here "Asher Cherfucha Oyvecha Hashem, Asher Cherfu Ikvos Meshichecha"?

(c) In another Beraisa, Rebbi Yehudah describes the generation of Mashi'ach. The Beis ha'Va'ad he says, will become a brothel.
What is the 'Beis ha'Va'ad'?

(d) The Galil will be destroyed, he continues, Gavlan desolate and the men of G'vul will wander from place to place and no-one will take pity on them.
Who are 'the men of ...

  1. ... G'vul'?
  2. ... Gazis' (as other texts read)?
(a) The wisdom of the Chachamim will be scorned and those who fear G-d rejected.
What does Rebbi Yehudah mean when he says that the face of the generation will be like that of a dog?

(b) And what does he mean when he says ...

  1. ... 've'ha'Emes Ne'ederes' (Amri de'Bei Rav)?
  2. ... 've'Sar me'Ra Mishtolel" (Amri de'Bei Rebbi Shilo)?
(c) Rava initially thought that there was nobody left in the world who spoke the absolute truth.
What did Rav Tavos (or Rav Tivyumi) tell him about his own philosophy?
(a) This was due to a bitter experience that he had when he lived in Kushta.
What was special about the town Kushta?

(b) What was Rav Tavos' connection with Kushta?

(c) What happened once when a neighbor asked for his wife, who was washing her hair? What did he reply?

(d) What was the result of his lie?

(a) According to Rebbi Nehora'i, in the generation of Mashi'ach, young boys will shame old men.
What derogatory comment does he make about the relationship between ...
  1. ... old men and youths?
  2. ... daughters (and daughters-in-law) and mothers (and mothers-in-law)?
(b) He too agrees that the face of the generation will resemble that of a dog.
What does he say about the relationship between a son and a father?

(c) According to Rebbi Nechemyah in another Beraisa, Mashi'ach will not come until Chutzpah abounds.
What does 've'ha'Yoker Ye'aves' mean?

(d) There will be plenty of grapes, yet wine will be expensive.
Why might that be?

(a) Rava cites a Pasuk in Tazri'a to prove Rebbi Nechemyah's final sign of Mashi'ach "Kulo Hafach Lavan Tahor Hu".
What is Rebbi Nechemyah's final sign of Mashi'ach?

(b) What is then Rava's proof from the Pasuk?

(c) The Pasuk in Ha'azinu writes "When Hashem judges His people ... when He sees that the hand is getting stronger, and there is no-one to help".
What does the Beraisa learn from this Pasuk? What does "judges His people" mean, and which hand is getting stronger?

(d) Others say that "Ozlas Yad" refers to the diminishing of Talmidim (who help Yisrael to return to their Father in Heaven), or to the empty hand (no money). What does another opinion say, based on the end of the Pasuk "ve'Efes Atzur ve'Azuv"? How do they interpret this Pasuk?

(a) What would Rebbi Zeira say to the Chachamim, whenever he saw them discussing the coming of Mashi'ach?

(b) What else, besides finding a lost article, comes when one least expects it?

(c) What does ...

  1. ... Rav Ketina learn from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "ve'Nisgav Hashem Levado ba'Yom ha'Hu"?
  2. ... Abaye learn from the Pasuk in Hoshei'a "Yechayenu mi'Yomayim, ba'Yom ha'Shelishi Yekimenu ve'Yichyeh Lefanav"?
(d) We cite a Beraisa in support of Rav Ketina.
How does the Tana compare the years of the world (based on the same Pasuk as Rav Ketina) to the Sh'mitah cycle?
(a) How does the same Beraisa interpret the Pasuk in Tehilim "Mizmor Shir le'Yom ha'Shabbos"?

(b) And what does he learn from the Pasuk there "Ki Elef Shanim be'Einecha ke'Yom Esmol Ki Ya'avor"?

(c) Tana de'Bei Eliyahu breaks down the years of the world (until Mashi'ach) into three. If the first two thousand years of the world's existence were devoid of Torah, when exactly did the two thousand years of Torah (which was only given officially in 2448) begin?

(d) What does the Tana comment about the years of the two thousand of Mashi'ach that have already passed?

(a) Given that Ma'amad Har Sinai took place in the year 2448, how many years would elapse ...
  1. ... until the building of the first Beis-Hamikdash?
  2. ... from the building until its destruction?
  3. ... from the destruction until the destruction of the second Beis-Hamikdash?
(b) How many years remained until the two thousand years of Mashi'ach would begin?

(c) What is the significance of the two thousand years of Mashi'ach?

(d) Can we imply from 'the two thousand years of Torah' that Torah would come to an end once the two thousand years of Mashi'ach began?

Answers to questions



(a) What did Eliyahu ha'Navi say to Rav Yehudah the brother of Rav Sala Chasida with regard to eighty-five Yovlos?

(b) What did he reply when Rav Yehudah asked him whether ...

  1. ... Mashi'ach will come at the beginning of the last Yovel or at the end?
  2. ... the time would elapse before Mashi'ach comes or not (see Agados Maharsha)?
(c) According to Rav Ashi's interpretation, Rav Yehudah's questions are not relevant.
How does Rav Ashi interpret Eliyahu's statement?
(a) Rav Chanan bar Tachlifa informed Rav Yosef that he found someone with an authentic scroll.
How did he ...
  1. ... obtain the scroll?
  2. ... know that it was authentic?
(b) What did the scroll say about year 4231? What are 'Milchamos Taninim'?

(c) When will Hashem renew His world ...

  1. ... according to the scroll,
  2. ... according to Rav Acha B'rei de'Rava?
(a) What does the Beraisa, quoting Rebbi Nasan mean when, regarding the Pasuk in Chavakuk "Im Yismahmah, Chakeh Lo", it states 'Mikra Zeh Nokev ve'Yored ad ha'Tehom'?

(b) 'Not like various Tana'im, according to whom Mashi'ach should already have come. When ought he to have arrived, according to ...

  1. ... our Rebbes who Darshened the Pasuk in Daniel "ad Idan Idunin u'Pelag Idan"?
  2. ... Rebbi Simla'i, who Darshened the Pasuk in Tehilim "Ha'achaltem Lechem Dim'ah, va'Tashkeimo bi'Dema'os *Shalish*"?
  3. ... Rebbi Akiva, who Darshened the Pasuk in Chagai "Od Achas Me'at, va'Ani Mar'ish es ha'Shamayim ve'es ha'Aretz?
(c) The Pasuk in Chagai is referring to various kingdoms in the time of the second Beis-Hamikash, after which *genuine* sovereignty ceased.
What does the Tana mean when he says ...
  1. ... 'Malchus Rishon Shiv'im Shanah'?
  2. ... 'Malchus Sheini Chamishim u'Shetayim'?
(d) How long did the reign of ben Kuziba last?
(a) How does Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeini Amar Rebbi Yonasan interpret the Pasuk in Chavakuk "ve'Ya'fe'ach le'Ketz ve'Lo Yechazev"?

(b) In fact, even Hashem awaits the coming of Mashi'ach, as the Pasuk in Yeshayah writes "Lachen, Yechakeh Hashem La'chananchem".
If Hashem longs for Mashi'ach and so do we, then why does he not come?

(c) Seeing as we do not know when Mashi'ach is due to arrive, (neither will waiting for him bring him any sooner) what is the point of waiting (since this merely leads to disappointment - Agados Maharsha)?

(a) What does Abaye learn from the Pasuk that we just quoted "Ashrei Kol Chochei *Lo*"?

(b) How does Rava interpret the Pasuk in Yechezkel (in connection with Yerushalayim shel Ma'alah) "Saviv Shemonah-Asar Elef"?

(c) How do we reconcile Abaye and Rava's statements?

(d) What did Chizkiyah Amar Rebbi Yirmiyah in the name of Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai say about people who were constantly growing in stature (spiritually) assuming there were ...

  1. ... a thousand?
  2. ... a hundred?
  3. ... two?
(e) How do we then reconcile this with Abaye, according to whom there are thirty-six Tzadikim who see with a clear vision?
(a) According to Rav, all the 'Kitzin' have passed.
So when will Mashi'ach come?

(b) What might Shmuel mean when he says 'Dayo le'Aveil she'Ya'amod be'Evlo'?
Who might be 'the Aveil'?

(c) What did Rebbi Yehoshua say to Rebbi Eliezer, when he said that the Ge'ulah depends exclusively on Teshuvah?

(a) In another Beraisa, Rebbi Eliezer quotes a series of Pesukim, intimating that the Ge'ulah depends exclusively on Teshuvah (which all of Yisrael must perform), whereas Rebbi Yehoshua cites many Pesukim proving that it will come about, even if they don't.
How does Rebbi Yehoshua interpret the Pasuk in ...
  1. ... Yeshayah "*Chinam* Nimkartem, ve'Lo *be'Kesef* Tiga'elu"? What does he prove from this Pasuk?
  2. ... in Yirmiyah "Ki Anochi Ba'alti Bachem, ve'Lakachti Eschem Echad me'Ir u'Shenayim mi'Mishpachah"?
  3. ... in Yeshayah "Koh Amar Hashem, Ho'el Yisrael ... li'Vezoh Nefesh li'Mesa'ev Goy le'Eved Moshlim, Melachim Yir'u va'Kamu, Sarim va'Yishtachavu"?
(b) Which Pasuk in Daniel does Rebbi Yehoshua quote, to which Rebbi Eliezer has no answer?
Answers to questions

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