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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sanhedrin 77


(a) In a case where Reuven held down Shimon's animal in the sun until it died, Ravina obligated him to pay.
What did Rav Acha bar Rav rule? Why was that?

(b) How did Ravina derive his ruling from a 'Kal va'Chomer' from our Mishnah?

(c) How did Rav Mesharshaya (Rav Acha's grandson) learn his grandfather's Din from the Pasuk in Mas'ei "Mos Yumas ha'Makeh Rotze'ach Hu"?

(a) What does Rava say about a case where Reuven trusses up Shimon ...
  1. ... who subsequently dies of famine?
  2. ... in the mid-day sun or in the cold, and he subsequently dies from sunstroke or from the cold?
  3. ... in a place, where the sun or the cold will reach later in the day?
(b) On what grounds does Rava exempt Reuven from Miysah for tying up Shimon in front of a lion?

(c) He declares him Chayav however, for tying him up in front of mosquitoes, because he could otherwise have run away from them.
What does Rav Ashi about this?

(a) Rav and Rebbi Zeira argue over a case where Reuven covered Shimon with a barrel, and he died for lack of oxygen.
What other case do they argue about?

(b) From which case of Rava's do we prove that Rava is the one who holds Patur?

(c) We try to counter this however, from Rebbi Zeira, who declares Reuven Chayav for enclosing Shimon in a room of marble, and lighting a candle there.
What do we try to prove from that?

(d) On what grounds do we reject this proof (to remain with the proof that Rava is the one who holds Patur)?

Answers to questions



(a) What does Rava say about Reuven who pushes Shimon into a deep pit and Levi then removes the ladder that had been standing there (depriving him of the chance to escape)?

(b) What does he say, if it was Reuven himself who removed the ladder ...

  1. ... after Shimon reached the bottom of the pit?
  2. ... before he landed?
(a) And what does he say in a case where Reuven shoots an arrow at Shimon, and Levi or even Reuven, removes ...
  1. ... the shield that Shimon is holding at the time that the arrow is shot?
  2. ... the balm that he would have used to cure himself from the wound which subsequently killed him?
(b) What does Rav Ashi extrapolate from Rava's latter ruling with regard to a case when there is a balm available in the stores to Shimon at the time when Reuven shoots the arrow?

(c) What did Rav Acha B'rei de'Rava ask Rav Ashi about a case where, after being shot, a balm became available to Shimon, which would have cured him, but he failed to procure it and died?

(d) What did Rav Ashi reply?

(a) What does Rava say about Reuven who throws a ball against a wall with force, with the intention of killing Shimon on the rebound, which it does?

(b) And what does the Beraisa say about big children who are playing ball against a wall, and Reuven kills Shimon in the way that we just described ...

  1. ... be'Meizid?
  2. ... be'Shogeg?
(c) What is the Beraisa coming to teach us?
(a) What distinction does Rav Tachlifa from Eretz Yisrael quoting a Beraisa in front of Rebbi Avahu, make with regard to the previous case if the ball killed someone within four Amos or at a distance of more than four Amos?

(b) Why must 'Chayav' and 'Patur' be referring to Galus and not to Miysah?

(c) What did Ravina mean when he asks Rav Ashi 'I de'ka 'Niycha Leih, Afilu Purta Nami ... '?

(d) What did Rav Ashi reply?

(a) Considering that the ball hits Shimon from a different angle than the one that Reuven threw it, why is he Chayav?

(b) What does the Mishnah in Parah say about a case where the ashes of the Parah Adumah that one is transferring into the water in the trough (known as Kidush) hits the Kohen's hand or the side of the trough before falling into the water?

(c) What criterion is not being met by this happening?

(d) So what is the Kashya on Rava from here?

(a) How do we answer the Kashya? How had the ashes been transferred into the trough?

(b) What does another Mishnah in Parah say about a case where a Kohen sprinkled ashes from the Mei Chatas on to a Tamei needle, and it is uncertain whether the ashes fell directly on to the needle, or whether it first fell on the piece of clay on which the needle was lying before rebounding on to the needle ('u'Mitzah Alehah')?

(c) How does Rav Chinena bar Yehudah in the name of Rav amend the Lashon 'u'Mitzah Alehah' to answer the Kashya?

(a) What does Rav Papa say about Reuven who bound Shimon before diverting a stream of water in his direction in order to drown him?

(b) We qualify this ruling by restricting it to 'Ko'ach Rishon', but if Shimon is killed by Ko'ach Sheini, then Reuven will be Patur.
What is 'Ko'ach Sheini'?

(c) Why is he Patur?

(d) To what extent is he Patur?

(a) What does Rav Papa say about Reuven who throws a clump of earth into the air and it travels in an arc and falls on Shimon and kills him?

(b) What would be the Din if it were to return to earth in a vertical line and kill Shimon?

(c) What technical problem did Mar bar Rav Ashi have with the first ruling?

(d) How did Rav Papa explain it to him?

Answers to questions

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