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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sanhedrin 74


(a) The Torah, in Mishpatim, describing a case where Reuven and Shimon are fighting, and Reuven strikes a pregnant woman and kills the babies, rules "ve'Im Ason Yiheyeh, ve'Nasata Nefesh Tachas Nafesh". How does Rebbi Elazar interpret "Nefesh Tachas Nafesh"? What is the case?

(b) Why must the Pasuk be speaking when Reuven actually intended to kill Shimon, and not just wound him?

(c) What is now the problem with the continuation of the Pasuk, obligating the man to pay for the babies, should the woman not die?

(d) So how does Rebbi Yonasan ben Shaul establish the Pasuk? Why is Reuven not Patur from paying because of 'Nitan Lehatzilo be'Nafsho'?

(a) How does Abaye now use Rebbi Yonasan ben Shaul to reconcile the Mishnah in Kesuvos (which includes Chayvei Kareis in the Din of K'nas), with our Mishnah (which includes them in the Din of 'Matzlilin Osan be'Nafshan') even if it speaks about an Anusah (and not by a Mefutah)?

(b) We query Abaye's answer however, on the grounds that maybe in the case of Rebbi Yonasan ben Shaul , the Rodef is Chayav to pay, because his Chiyuv Miysah is to Shimon, whereas his Chiyuv Mamon is to the woman's husband, assuming he is not Shimon (and not because there was another way of saving Shimon).
What do we answer?

(c) What does Rava (or Rabah) rule in a case where Reuven is chasing Shimon and ...

  1. ... breaks vessels belonging to Shimon or Levi"?
  2. ... Shimon breaks vessels belonging to Shimon or Levi"?
  3. ... Yehudah, who is chasing Reuven, in an attempt to save Shimon, breaks vessels belonging to Shimon or Levi?
(d) What is the reason for the latter ruling?
(a) On what basis does Rebbi Shimon include a person who is about to worship idols in 'Nitan Lehatzilo be'Nafsho'? What 'Kal va'Chomer' does he Darshen?

(b) How will he solve the problem of 'Ein Onshin min ha'Din'?

(c) And on what basis does his son Rebbi Elazar include someone who is about to be Mechalel Shabbos in the same category?

(a) What decision did the Chachamim, quoted by Rebbi Yochanan citing Rebbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak, arrive at in the attic of Beis Nitzah in Lod, with regard to the principle of 'Ya'avor ve'Al Yehareg'.
What are the only three exceptions to this rule?

(b) The source for the three exceptions we will discuss shortly.
What is the source for the principle?

(c) What does Rebbi Yishmael say with regard to 'Yehareg ve'Al Ya'avor' in the realm of Avodas Kochavim? From where does he learn it?

(d) And what does he learn from the Pasuk in Emor "ve'Lo Sechalelu es Shem Kodshi ve'Nikdashti ... "?

(a) The Chachamim, we conclude, hold like Rebbi Eliezer, who in turn, learns like Rebbi.
What does Rebbi in a Beraisa, learn from the Hekesh ("Ki Ka'asher Yakum Ish al Re'ehu u'Retzcho Nefesh Kein ha'Davar ha'Zeh") comparing ...
  1. ... Rotze'ach to Na'arah ha'Me'urasah.
  2. ... Na'arah ha'Me'urasah to Rotze'ach?
(b) From where does Rebbi learn 'Yehareg ve'Al Ya'avor' by Retzichah?

(c) How does Rebbi Eliezer interpret "u've'Chol Nafshecha"?

(d) What does Rebbi Eliezer learn from the Pasuk in Eikev "ve'Ahavta es Hashem Elokecha ...

  1. ... "u've'Chol Nafshecha" (seeing as the Torah will anyway write "u've'Chol Me'odecha")?
  2. ... "u've'Chol Me'odecha" (seeing as the Torah has already written "u've'Chol Nafshecha")?
(a) What instructions did Rabah (or Rava) issue the man who had been ordered by the mayor of his town to murder a fellow-Jew on pain of death?

(b) Ravin Amar Rebbi Yochanan corroborates what we learned earlier in the Beraisa (with regard to the Chumra of be'Farhesya).
How does Rav Dimi Amar Rebbi Yochanan further qualify the Torah's concession of "va'Chai Bahem" 've'Lo she'Yamus Bahem'? When is one obligated to give up one life even for a 'minor Mitzvah', even in private?

(c) How does Rava bar Rav Yitzchak define the 'minor Mitzvah' of Rav Dimi?

Answers to questions



(a) What does Rebbi Yochanan learn from the Pasuk in Emor "ve'Nikdashti be'Soch *B'nei Yisrael*"?

(b) What She'eilah did Rebbi Yirmiyah ask regarding the ten people that constitute Farhesya?

(c) What did Rav Yanai the brother of Rebbi Chiya bar Aba learn from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Toch" "Toch" (from the Pasuk in Korach "Hibadlu mi'Toch ha'Eidah ha'Zos"), to resolve it?

(a) What do we then ask from Esther?

(b) Why do we not rather ask that it was Giluy Arayos, which should therefore have been forbidden, even if it had been be'Tzin'ah [see Tosfos DH 've'Ha'])?

(c) What does Abaye mean when he answers 'Esther Karka Olam Haysah'?

(a) What does Rava answer?

(b) Rava proves his point from 'Hani K'vaki ve'Dimoniki' which they would normally place on the royal table.
What are 'K'vaki ve'Dimoniki'?

(c) How does Rava prove his point from here? Why would they demand fire from every household?

(d) Rava follows his own reasoning.
What does Rava say in a case where a Nochri threatens to kill a Yisrael unless he cuts on Shabbos some Aspasta (a grass used for animal fodder) and to throw it ...

  1. ... to his animals?
  2. ... into the river?
(a) They asked Rebbi Ami whether a Nochri is commanded on Kidush Hashem. How did Abaye try to resolve the She'eilah from the Beraisa, which lists the seven Mitzvos B'nei No'ach?

(b) Rava refuted Abaye's proof with the words 'Inhu ve'Chol Abizraihu'. What did he mean by that?

(a) What request did Na'aman (the Syrian general) make of Elisha, after having undertaking not to worship idols?

(b) What does Rav Ada bar Ahavah Amri Bei Rav Kahana try to prove from here?

(c) What exactly is the proof? Is it from the fact that Elisha did not obligate him to give up his life?

(d) How do we repudiate Rav Ada bar Ahavah's proof?

Answers to questions

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