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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sanhedrin 73


(a) We just learned that Levi may stop Reuven, who is chasing Shimon, from sinning, by taking his life.
Which other two cases does our Mishnah list, where he may do so (and even should)?

(b) What does the Tana then say about Levi who comes across Reuven chasing an animal in order to perform bestiality with it?

(c) Which other two cases does he add to this list?

(d) We learned the first case in the Mishnah (saving Shimon's life) from a 'Gezeiras ha'Kasuv' ("Ein Lo Damim").
On what grounds does the Tana differentiate between a case where Reuven is chasing a Na'arah ha'Me'urasah or a man, and one where he is chasing an animal?

(a) What does the Beraisa initially learn from the Pasuk in Kedoshim "Lo Sa'amod al Dam Re'echa"?

(b) What is the simple interpretation of the Pasuk?

(c) What is then the problem with the initial D'rashah?

(d) How do we then attempt to learn the Din of killing a Rodef from the Pasuk of Na'arah ha'Me'urasah?

(a) What is the problem with learning Rotze'ach from Na'arah ha'Me'urasah with a 'Kal va'Chomer'?

(b) How do we circumvent the problem? What is the basic difference between a 'Kal va'Chomer' on the one hand and a 'Hekesh' and a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' on the other?

(c) The source of this explanation is Tana de'Bei Rebbi.
What does Tana de'Bei Rebbi mean when he comments on the Pasuk "Ki Ka'asher Yakum Ish al Re'eihu Kein ha'Davar ha'Zeh" 'Harei Zeh Ba le'Lamed ve'Nimtza Lameid'?

(d) What does Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael learn from the Pasuk in Ki Seitzei (in connection with a Na'arah ha'Me'urasah) "ve'Ein Moshi'a Lah"?

(a) What do we learn from the Pasuk in Ki Seitzei (in connection with returning a lost article) "va'Hashevoso Lo"?

(b) Then why do we require the Pasuk "Lo Sa'amod al Dam Re'echa", which seems to teach us the same thing?

(c) We learned in our Mishnah that one must save both the life and the dignity of a man or of a Na'arah ha'Me'urasah, who is being chased, with the life of the pursuer.
What does the Beraisa say about someone who is chasing ...

  1. ... Chayvei Miysos Beis-Din or Chayvei Kerisus
  2. ... Chayvei La'avin, such as a Kohen Gadol who is chasing an Almanah or a Kohen Hedyot who is chasing a Gerushah or a Chalutzah?
(d) And what does the Tana say about killing the Rodef ...
  1. ... after the sin has already been committed? Why is that?
  2. ... if there is another way of saving the Nirdaf?
(a) What does Rebbi Yehudah say with regard to a Na'arah ha'Me'urasah who pleads with Levi to leave Reuven who wants to rape her alone?

(b) "ve'la'Na'arah Lo Sa'aseh Davar, *Ein la'Na'arah Chet Maves* ... Ein Moshi'a Lah".
On what basis does the Beraisa Darshen from the second half of the Pasuk?

(c) What does the Tana learn from ...

  1. ... "Na'ar" (since the word is written without a 'Hey')?
  2. ... "Na'arah"?
  3. ... "Chet"?
  4. ... "Maves"?
Answers to questions



(a) Having taught us the concession to kill the Rodef by ...
  1. ... Na'ar, why does the Torah need to specifically state Na'arah as well?
  2. ... Na'arah, why does it need to specifically state Na'ar?
  3. ... these two, why does the Torah then find it necessary to add the other Arayos (in the word "Chet")?
  4. ... the Arayos, why does the Torah need to add "Maves"?
  5. ... "Maves" (Chayvei Miysos), why does the Torah find it necessary to then add "Chet?
(b) How do we eliminate the need for half of these D'rashos?

(c) So why *does* the Torah see fit to insert "Na'ar" and "Na'arah"?

(d) Now that one Pasuk precludes Oved Avodas-Kochavim from the Din of Rodef, why do we need another Pasuk to preclude Beheimah?

(e) Why does the Tana mention Shabbos together with Beheimah?

(a) According to Rebbi Shimon, one may indeed kill someone who is about to worship Avodah-Zarah. Then why do we need ''Na'ar" and "Na'arah"? Why would we have thought that Shabbos is 'Nitan Le'hatzilo be'Nafsho'?

(b) Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon maintains that Shabbos is also 'Nitan Le'hatzilo be'Nafsho'.
From where does he learn that?

(c) According to Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon, why does the Torah need to write "Na'ar" and "Na'arah"?

(a) Rebbi Yehudah in our Mishnah forbids Levi to kill the rapist if the Na'arah ha'Me'urasah pleads with him to leave him alone.
What do the Rabbanan say?

(b) Why must they be arguing in a case where the Na'arah ha'Me'urasah is concerned about her good name?

(c) Then what is the case?

(d) How do we know that the Torah is concerned about her good name?

(a) What is now the basis of their Machlokes? How does Rava explain the reason of ...
  1. ... the Rabbanan?
  2. ... Rebbi Yehudah?
(b) Whose opinion is Rav Papa querying when he asks 'Almanah le'Kohen Gadol Nami ka'Pagam Lah'?

(c) What does Abaye answer him?

(d) What exactly is a major P'gam and what is a minor P'gam?

(a) Our Mishnah includes Chayvei K'riysus in the list of those whom one may kill.
What problem does this create with the Mishnah in Kesuvos 've'Eilu Na'aros she'Yesh Lahen K'nas, ha'Ba al Achoso'?

(b) How do we reconcile this with the fact that Kidushin is not effective by Chayvei K'riysus?

(c) How does Rav Chisda answer the Kashya by establishing the P'gam from the time of Ha'ara'ah? What is Ha'ara'ah?

(d) How do others explain Ha'ara'ah? Why will that interpretation negate Rav Chisda's answer?

(a) What does Rav Chisda mean when he establishes the Mishnah in Kesuvos 'she'Ba Alehah she'Lo ke'Darkah, ve'Chazar Alehah ke'Darkah'? Does it make any difference whether he performed the first Bi'ah or someone else?

(b) Rava establishes the author as Rebbi Yehudah of our Mishnah.
Which Rebbi Yehudah? What does he say?

(c) Rav Papa establishes it 'bi'Mefutah' ve'Divrei ha'Kol'. What does he mean by that?

Answers to questions

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