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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sanhedrin 65


(a) If Ba'al-Ov (a form of witchcraft) ...
  1. ... constitutes a spirit speaking from the arm-pit of Pitus (the name of a wizard), what does Yid'oni constitute?
  2. ... and Yid'oni themselves are punishable by Sekilah, what punishment is due to the person who consults them? Which king was actually guilty of this sin?
  3. ... and Yid'oni themselves are warned in the Pasuk in Shoftim "Lo Yimatzei Becha ... ve'Chover Chaver ve'Sho'el Ov ve'Yid'oni", what is the Azharah for the person who asks them?
(b) Our Mishnah mentions both Ba'al-Ov and Yid'oni.
What is then the problem with the Mishnah in Kerisus (which lists the thirty-six Chayvei Kareis)?

(c) Rebbi Yochanan answers that the Mishnah in Kerisus mentions only one of them, because they are both contained in one La'av ("Al Tifnu el ha'Ovos ve'el ha'Yid'onim").
Why then, did the Tana choose to insert specifically Ba'al-Ov, and not Yid'oni?

(d) Why did Rebbi Yochanan not rather say ... 'because they are both stated in one Kareis ("ve'Hichrati Oso mi'Kerev Amo" [Kedoshim])?

(a) What is the significance of Rebbi Yochanan's statement anyway? What problem would it have created to insert Yid'oni in the Mishnah?

(b) According to Resh Lakish, the Mishnah in Kerisus could, in any event, not have inserted Yid'oni.
Why not?

(c) What is the distinction between Ba'al-Ov and Yid'oni that makes the former a Ma'aseh but not the latter?

(d) Why does Resh Lakish decline to learn like Rebbi Yochanan? If the number of La'avin does not determine the number of Korbanos, then what does?

(a) And on what grounds does Rebbi Yochanan decline to learn like Resh Lakish? Why would the fact that Yid'oni is a 'La'av she'Ein Bo Ma'aseh' not bother him?

(b) In which point does Resh Lakish argue with Rebbi Yochanan? If Rebbi Akiva obligates a Korban for Megadef and Ba'al Ov because they entail a slight Ma'aseh, as we have explained, why does he not consider Yid'oni too, to be a slight Ma'aseh?

(c) We prove that Resh Lakish too, must be speaking according to Rebbi Akiva, from his opinion by Hishtachavayah. Rebbi Yochanan establishes the Beraisa obligating the four Avodos (including Hishtachavayah) by she'Lo ke'Darkah, to bring a Korban, even like the Rabbanan, who require a Ma'aseh.
Why is that?

(d) What does Resh Lakish say? How does *he* establish the Beraisa?

(a) How does this prove that, when Resh Lakish says 'Hakashas Zero'osav Havi Ma'aseh', it must be according to Rebbi Akiva?

(b) What problem do we now have with the Seifa of the Mishnah in Kerisus, where the Chachamim preclude a Megadef from a Chatas?

(c) We reject the initial answer, suggesting that Ba'al-Ov in Kerisus refers to someone who sacrifices to a demon, because of Rava.
What does Rava hold with regard to someone who does that?

(d) So how does Rava establish 'Ba'al-Ov' in Kerisus?

(e) How do we refute Abaye's Kashya, that seeing as this is merely one aspect of "Chover Chaver", it should be no more than a plain La'av (like hover Chaver itself)?

(a) One of the La'avin pertaining to witchcraft is "Chover Chaver". What is 'Chover Chaver'?

(b) The Beraisa states that there is no difference between a big Chover Chaver and a small one.
What does this mean?

(c) Is one permitted to collect the animals in this way ...

  1. ... if they are running after him?
  2. ... because they are potentially dangerous, such as snakes and scorpions?
(d) Why else might the Tana mention specifically snakes and scorpions?
Answers to questions



(a) Seeing as according to Rebbi Yochanan, the Rabanan consider Hishtachavayah a Ma'aseh (because of Kefifas Komaso, as we explained earlier), why do they not consider Megadef a Ma'aseh as well (because of Akimas Sefasav)?

(b) The Torah presents the case of Avodah-Zarah by Par He'elam Davar of a Kohen Mashi'ach to confine the Din of Korban Chatas to cases of Zedonah Kareis ve'Shigegasah Chatas.
From where do we know that Eidim Zomemin never bring a Chatas?

(c) What is the problem with this, according to the way we just explained Rebbi Yochanan?

(d) What do we mean when we initially answer 'Sha'ani Eidim Zomemin Ho'il ve'Yeshno be'Kol'?

(a) The Torah forbids a. muzzling an animal whilst it is threshing, and b. leading two different animals tied to the same yoke. Resh Lakish exempts someone who does either of these with his voice.
On what grounds does Rebbi Yochanan disagree?

(b) Why does this clash with what we just said to explain Rebbi Yochanan?

(c) So how do we explain the Beraisa of Eidim Zomemin? If it is not their voices that render it a La'av she'Ein Bo Ma'aseh, according to Rebbi Yochanan, then what is it?

(a) We learned in our Mishnah that Ov would speak from a person's armpit. Alternatively, says the Beraisa, it would speak from 'Bein ha'Perakim'. What does 'Bein ha'Perakim' mean?

(b) How do we reconcile this with the Pasuk in Yeshayah "ve'Hayah ke'Ov me'Eretz Kolecha" and the Pasuk in Shmuel "va'Tomer ha'Ishah, el Shaul, Elohim Ra'isi Olim min ha'Aretz", both of which imply that the spirit speaks from the ground?

(c) The Beraisa speaks about two kinds of Ov. One of them brings the spirit onto his Makom ha'Milah.
What does the other one do?

(d) With the former, the spirit arrives upside-down, whereas with the latter, it arrives the right way up. What is the other difference that distinguishes them?

(a) What did Rebbi Akiva reply to Turnusrufus (a Roman governor), when he asked him 'Mah Yom mi'Yomayim'? Which day was he referring to?

(b) And what was his response to Turnusrufus' reply 'de'Mari Tzavei'?

(c) When the latter explained that what he wanted was a proof that today was Shabbos, Rebbi Akiva brought him three proofs. One was the River Sambatyon, which was turbulent the whole week, but flowed sedately on Shabbos.
What were the other two?

(d) How did Turnusrufus react to Rebbi Akiva's words?

(a) What is the significance of the smoke rising from Turnusrufus' father's grave during the week but not on Shabbos?

(b) Initially, we think that Ov is equivalent to "Doresh el ha'Meisim". What is the problem with that?

(a) We answer with a Beraisa. How does the Beraisa define 'Doresh el ha'Meisim'?

(b) Why did this cause Rebbi Akiva to burst into tears?

(c) Then why did it not work? Was there a flaw in the 'Kal va'Chomer'?

(d) What does Rava extrapolate from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Ki im Avonoseichem Hayu Mavdilin Beinechem le'Bein Elokeichem"?

(a) What did Rebbi Zeira do with the 'man' whom Rava created and sent to him?

(b) How did he know that he was only a Golem?

(c) What did Rav Chanina and Rav Oshaya do every Erev Shabbos?

(d) What does 'Egla Tilsa' mean?

(a) Rebbi Shimon defines "Me'onen" as 'ha'Ma'avir Shiv'ah Miynei Zachur al ha'Einayim'.
What does this mean?

(b) According to the Chachamim, it is the performing of conjuring tricks, where a person performs illusionary wonders.
How does Rebbi Akiva define it?

(c) What do the 'experts' say about Erev Shevi'is with regard to ...

  1. ... planting wheat?
  2. ... harvesting legumes?
(a) How does the Beraisa define Menachesh?

(b) The Tana cites the soothsayers, who declare that bread falling from one's mouth or dropping one's staff is a bad sign for the rest of the day, and the same goes for someone whose son calls him from behind.
What do they say about ...

  1. ... a deer on the one hand, and a snake and a fox on the other?
  2. ... the Gabai of the Shul, or the tax-collector claiming their dues early in the morning or on Rosh Chodesh?
(c) What other time do they claim is bad to start paying?

(d) How does another Beraisa define the Pasuk in Kedoshim "Lo Senachashu ve'Lo Se'oneinu" (see Agados Maharsha)?

Answers to questions

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