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Sanhedrin 63

SANHEDRIN 63 (8 Kislev) - Dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas: Shoshana Raizel bas Reb Yisrael Leib -- Mrs. Rose Shaw -- on the second Yahrzeit of her passing, by her son, Dr. Allen Shaw (Atlanta), and grandchildren, Sheila Jutan and family (Singapore) and Yisrael Shaw and family (Jerusalem).


(a) Which Pasuk in Yisro does Abaye quote as the source for Rebbi Ami's Din 'Zivach ve'Kitar ve'Nisach be'He'elam Echad, Eino Chayav Ela Echad'?

(b) From the two of the three Hishtachavayos, Abaye himself learns ke'Darkah and she'Lo ke'Darkah.
What does he learn from the third one?

(c) The three Hishtachavayos in question are "Lo Sishtachaveh Lahem" in the first Aseres ha'Dibros, "Ki Lo Sishtachaveh le'Eil Acher" in Ki Sisa, and "Lo Sishtachaveh l'Eloheihem" in Mishpatim.
Why does he ignore a fourth Hishtachavayah in the second Aseres ha'Dibros?

(d) How can Abaye, who learns that the third Hishtachavayah 'le'Chalek Yatzas', discuss Rebbi Ami, who obviously does not explain Hishtachavayah in this way?

(a) What does Rebbi Ami learn from the third Hishtachavayah?

(b) What do we learn from the Pasuk in Re'ei "Eichah Ya'avdu"?

(c) What problem does this create with Abaye's three Hishtachavayos?

(d) How do we therefore amend Abaye's statement? What does he mean when he says ...

  1. ... 'ke'Darkah'?
  2. ... 'she'Lo Kedarkah?
(e) According to what we have just learned, why did Rebbi Elazar above learn from "ve'Lo Yizbechu", 'Zove'ach le'Markulis'? Since there is only one Pasuk, why did he not first learn Zove'ach (Shochet) to an idol that is worshipped Derech Kavod, like Rebbi Ami did?
(a) What does Rav Nachman ... Amar Rav say about someone who declares to an image 'Eili Atah'?

(b) Why would his statement be redundant if he meant 'Chayav Miysah'?

(c) So we establish Rav by a Chiyuv Chatas.
Why might one be Patur from a Chatas be'Shogeg even though he is Chayav Sekilah for having done the same thing be'Meizid?

(a) We learned in a Beraisa 'Eino Chayav Ela al Davar she'Yesh Bo Ma'aseh, K'gon Zivu'ach ve'Kitur ve'Nisuch ve'Hishtachavayah'. Why does Resh Lakish establish the author as Rebbi Akiva? Which case would pose a problem according to the Rabbanan?

(b) Then how can Rav rule that 'Eili Atah' is Chayav a Korban? Is that more of an act than prostrating oneself before it, for which there is no Korban, according to the Rabbanan?

(c) Why did Rav need to tell us this, why is it not obvious from the fact that Megadef brings a Korban, as Rebbi Akiva has already taught us (despite the fact that it is only Dibur)?

(d) According to Rav, what does Rebbi Akiva learn from the Pasuk in Ki Sisa "va'Yishtachavu Lo va'Yizbechu Lo va'Yomru Eileh Elohecha Yisrael ... "?

(e) How does Rebbi Akiva conform with the Pasuk "ve'Asah" mentioned by Korban Chatas? Why does he obligate a Chatas for ...

  1. ... Hishtachavayah?
  2. ... Megadef and 'Eili Atah'?
(a) What does Rebbi Yochanan say about the 'Vav' in the word 'Asher *He'elu'cha* me'Eretz Mitzrayim"?

(b) This conforms with the opinion of Acherim in a Beraisa.
What objection does Rebbi Shimon raise to this, based on the Pasuk ''Bilti la'Hashem Levado"?

(c) So how does Rebbi Shimon explain "Asher He'elucha me'Eretz Mitzrayim"?

(a) On what basis do we initially think that Rav Dimi Amar Rebbi Elazar exempts someone who makes a Neder or a Shevu'ah in the name of an idol from Malkus?

(b) What problem do we have with the other half of his statement, sentencing someone who embraces or kisses an idol, or sweeps or settles the dust in front of it, to Malkos?

(c) Which La'av does he transgress?

(a) We learn the P'tur from Malkos by a 'La'av she'bi'Kelalus' from Ravin Amar Rebbi Elazar (or Rav Avin bar Kahana).
To which La'av is he referring?

(b) What do the following prohibitions have in common: not to eat part of an animal before it is dead, not to eat from a Kodshim animal before the blood has been sprinkled and not to offer a Se'udas Havra'ah to the family of someone who was put to death by the Beis-Din?

(c) The first two are statements of the Tana Kama, the latter, of Rebbi Dosa. Rebbi Akiva adds the prohibition of Beis-Din who have sentenced someone to death to eat for the rest of the day.
Which final case does Rebbi Yochanan (the Amora) add? For which Chayav Miysah is "Lo Sochlo al ha'Dam" a warning?

(d) What does Rav Avin bar Chiya (or Ravin bar Kahana) comment on these five interpretations of the La'av "Lo Sochlo al ha'Dam"?

(a) As a result of the above Kashya, Ravin reverses Rebbi Elazar's two statements, exempting someone who embraces, kisses, sweeps or settles the dust in front of an idol from Malkos.
On what grounds does he sentence someone who makes a Neder or a Shevu'ah in the name of an idol to death, in spite of the fact that it is a 'La'av she'Ein Bo Ma'aseh'?

(b) According to Rebbi Yehudah in a Beraisa, why is the La'av of leaving over the Korban Pesach until the morning (in Parshas Bo) not subject to Malkos?

(c) What does Rebbi Ya'akov say?

(d) On what grounds does Rebbi Yehudah disagree with Rebbi Ya'akov?

Answers to questions



(a) The Beraisa learns the Isur of Noder or Mekayem bi'Shemo from the second half of the Pasuk in Mishpatim "Lo Yishama al Picha".
What does the Tana learn from the first half of the Pasuk "ve'Shem Elohim Acherim Lo Sazkiru"?

(b) What else does the Tana add to 'Lo Yidor bi'Shemo ve'Lo Yekayem bi'Shemo', in support of Shmuel's father?

(c) What did Shmuel's father say?

(d) The La'av for Meisis is written in its own Parshah "ve'Chol Yisrael ... ve'Lo Yosifu La'asos".
What is the La'av for Medi'ach?

(a) When, after Ula had told Rava that he stayed overnight in Kalnevo, the latter queried the fact that he had mentioned the name of a god, he replied with a statement of Rebbi Yochanan.
What did Rebbi Yochanan say about the names of idols mentioned in T'nach?

(b) In what connection do we then quote the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Kara Beil Karas Nevo"?

(c) What is the equivalent in time with regard to the Shiur of one extended Zivus (which takes the place of three) which corresponds to 'from the time it takes to go from Migdeyon to Shiloh', given by the Beraisa?

(d) Seeing as Migdeyon (named after the image in that town), is not mentioned in the Torah, how do we reconcile this with Rebbi Yochanan's ruling?

(a) We know that Letzanus (mockery) is forbidden. What does Rav Nachman prove from the above Pasuk in Yeshayah.
What is that Pasuk saying about the god?

(b) And along similar lines, how do we amend the Pasuk in Hoshe'a, which in connection with the priests of Beis Aven, writes "Yagilu Alav al Kevodo Ki Galah Mimenu?

(c) What is the literal meaning of the Pasuk?

(d) What idolatrous practice does Rebbi Yitzchak describe, based on another prophecy of Hoshe'a? What would the people do with the image that they had made with their silver and gold?

(a) And how does Rebbi Yitzchak quoting de'Bei Rebbi Ami explain the Pasuk there "Zovchei Adam Agalim Yishakun"?

(b) Rava claims that, in that case, the Navi ought to have written "Agalim Yishakun li'Zebo'ach Adam".
So how does *he* explain the Pasuk?

(c) Rav Yehudah Amar Rev explains the Pasuk in Melachim which describes how the people of Bavel made 'Sukos Benos' and the people of Kus, Nergol, the people of Chamas, Ashima and the Avim, Nivchaz and Tartak'. If ...

  1. ... Sukos Benos was an image in the shape of a hen, what shape was Nergol?
  2. ... Ashima was a goat, what were Nivchaz and Tartak respectively?
(d) The S'farvim would burn their children to their gods Adarmelech and Anmelech. What shape were these two gods? How does Rav Yehudah explain the name ...
  1. ... 'Adarmelech'?
  2. ... 'Anmelech'?
(e) Achaz passed his son Chizkiyahu through the fires of S'farvim. How did he survive?
(a) How convinced were Yisrael of the Avodah-Zarah which they served so consistently?

(b) What analogy does Rebbi Elazar give to describe the Pasuk in Yirmiyah "ki'Zechor Beneihem Mizbechosam"?

(c) How do we reconcile this with Rav Yehudah Amar Rav's previous statement?

(a) What did Eliyahu ha'Tzadik discover when he was walking around Yerushalayim among those who were dying of hunger?

(b) After ascertaining that his entire family had perished, what did he advise the child to do that would save his life?

(c) What did the child say before producing his god, hugging and kissing it and suffering a terrible death?

(d) Which Pasuk in Bechukosai foretells of this tragedy?

Answers to questions

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