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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sanhedrin 60


(a) What does Rebbi Shimon learn from the two Pesukim in Mishpatim which juxtapose witchcraft and bestiality?

(b) And what does Rebbi Elazar learn from the Pasuk in Kedoshim ...

  1. ... "es Chukosai Tishmoru, Behemt'cha Lo Sarbi'a Kil'ayim"? On what grounds does he make such a D'rashah?
  2. ... "Behemt'cha Lo Sarbi'a Kil'ayim, ve'Sadcha Lo Sizra Kil'ayim"?
(c) What do we mean when we ask that we should then Darshen the Pasuk "u'Shemartem es Chukosai ve'es Mishpatai" in the same way?

(d) Why do we not ...

  1. ... Darshen this Pasuk in that way?
  2. ... make the same D'rashah with regard to the Pasuk (in connection with Sh'mitah and Yovel) "es Mishpatai Ta'asu *ve'es Chukosai Tishm'ru*" (see Tosfos DH 'Chukosai')?
(a) Rav Acha bar Ya'akov confines Birchas Hashem to the four-letter Name of Havayah, but not to the two-letter Name of Kah.
Why does he need to say this? Is this not obvious from Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah in our Mishnah, who speaks about 'Yakeh Yossi es Yossi'?

(b) What Chidush does Rav Acha bar Ya'akov come to teach us according to the second Lashon?

(c) Our Mishnah obligates the Dayanim ...

  1. ... to rise when the witnesses of Birchas Hashem pronounce the Name of Hashem in their testimony.
    From whom does Rav Yitzchak bar Ami learn this?
  2. ... rent their clothes upon hearing what the Mevarech Hashem said. From which incident do we learn this?
(a) What does Rebbi Avahu learn from the Pasuk in Melachim ...
  1. ... (describing Elisha's reaction to Eliyahu ha'Navi's ascent to Heaven) "va'Yechazek bi'Vegadav va'Yikra'em li'Shenayim Kera'im"? From which word does he derive it?
  2. ... to which we just referred (with reference to Ravshakeh's curse) "Keru'ei Begadim"?
(b) The Beraisa obligates the person who hears the curse to rent his clothes, as well as whoever hears it from him.
On what basis does the Tana exempt the witnesses from tearing Keri'ah when they testify in Beis-Din?

(c) Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel exempts someone who hears Birchas Hashem from a Nochri.
How will he reconcile this ruling with the episode with Ravshakeh?
Why did the dignitaries there rent their clothes?

(d) How does Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel qualify Birchas Hashem still further? To which Name does it apply, and to which Name does it not?

(a) What does Rebbi Chiya hold with regard to someone who hears Birchas Hashem ...
  1. ... from a Nochri?
  2. ... with regard to one of the Kinuyim?
(b) We infer this from another statement that he made.
What did he say about someone who hears Birchas Hashem nowadays? Why is that?

(c) Why can this ruling not refer to ...

  1. ... a Yisrael who cursed Hashem?
  2. ... a Nochri who cursed the Sheim ha'Meforash?
(d) What do we then go on to prove?
(a) We learned in our Mishnah that the second witness simply said 'Af Ani Kamohu'.
What does Resh Lakish extrapolate from here with regard to the testimony of the second witness in cases of Diynei Mamonos and Diynei Nefashos?

(b) Then why do Beis-Din require the second witness to repeat in full what he saw?

(c) Why did they not then issue the same decree with regard to Birchas Hashem?

(d) Why can we not then learn that the second witness is Chayav to repeat what he saw mi'd'Oraysa, and Birchas Hashem is different, because of Kavod Hashem?

(e) Who is the author of the Beraisa, which adds that the third witness too, only needs to say 'Af Ani Kamohu'?

Answers to questions



(a) What does the Tana of our Mishnah say about someone who serves an idol, Shechts a Korban in its honor, sacrifices it on the Mizbe'ach, or pours a drink-offerring before it?

(b) Which other method of worship does he add to the list?

(a) If someone accepts an idol as his god, by declaring 'You are my god', he is Chayav too.
From where do we know that one is Chayav for mere speech?

(b) How else might we explain ...

  1. ... 've'ha'Mekablo Alav le'Elohah"?
  2. ... 've'ha'Omer Lo Eili Atah'?
(c) Why do we need both cases?

(d) What does the Tana say about someone who ...

  1. ... embraces an idol, kisses it, sweeps the floor in front of it, bathes it, anoints it with oil, dresses it or puts shoes on its feet?
  2. ... makes a Neder or a Shevu'ah in its name?
(a) The first of the two latter groups involves the La'av of "*Lo Sa'avdem* ve'Lo Sa'aseh ke'Ma'aseihem" (in Mishpatim), besides the "Lo Sa'avdem" that is written in both Aseres ha'Dibros, rendering one of them superfluous). Which La'av involves the second group?

(b) Does the first of the latter groups (someone who embraces an idol ...) entail transgressing 'ke'Darkah' or 'she'Lo ke'Darkah'?

(c) What is ...

  1. ... Pe'or'?
  2. ... 'Markulis'?
(d) Why does the Tana find it necessary to inform us that these are considered ke'Darkah?
(a) What is the problem with the first case in the first list ('Echad ha'Oved')?

(b) How does Rebbi Yirmiyah therefore establish ...

  1. ... it?
  2. ... the following four cases 'ha'Mezabe'ach, ha'Mekater, ha'Menasech, ha'Mishtachaveh'?
(c) And how does Abaye ascribe the Tana's omission of 'ha'Zorek' (someone who sprinkles the blood of the Korban) from the first list?
(a) How would we have explained the Pasuk in Mishpatim "Zove'ach Yochoram" ...
  1. ... without the word "la'Elohim"?
  2. ... with it ("Zove'ach la'Elohim Yocharam"?
(b) How do we know that the Pasuk is speaking ...
  1. ... by she'Lo ke'Darkah?
  2. ... about a Chiyuv Miysah (and not just a La'av)?
(c) And what do we learn from the Pasuk ...
  1. ... there "Bilti la'Hashem Levado"?
  2. ... in Shoftim "va'Yeilech va'Ya'avod Elohim Acherim va'Yishtachu Lahem ... ve'Hotzeiso es ha'Ish ha'Hu ... u'Sekaltem"? How do we know that the Pasuk is referring to Hishtachavayah she'Lo ke'Darkah?
  3. ... in Ki Sisa "Ki Lo Sishtachaveh le'Eil Acher"?
(d) Seeing as we learn Mekater and Menasech from Zevichah, why do we not learn Hishtachavayah from there too?
(a) Why do we need the Pasuk "Zove'ach la'Elohim Yocharam"? Why can we not learn all the cases from Hashtachavayah?

(b) We learned earlier that if the Torah had written "Zove'ach Yocharam", we would have established the Pasuk by Shechutei Chutz.
What problem do we have with that?

(c) And what do we answer?

(a) Rava bar Rav Chanan asked Abaye why, when the Tana asked why when the Torah mentions 'Zove'ach', he did not answer that we need it to teach us 'Mechashvin me'Avodah la'Avodah'.
What does this mean?

(b) From where would we then know Mekater and Menasech?

(c) What difference will it make whether we learn them from Zove'ach or from Hishtachavayah?

(a) Rebbi Yochanan holds that if someone Shechts an animal in order to sprinkle its blood to Avodah-Zarah (even if in the end, he did not), the animal becomes Asur.
What does Resh Lakish say?

(b) What is the Halachah regarding 'Mechashvin me'Avodah la'Avodah with regard to Pigul (performing an Avodah with the intention of eating or sacrifing it after the expiry time) by Kodshim?

(c) Then what is the basis of the Machlokes between Rebbi Yochanan and Resh Lakish?

(d) Why is Rava bar Rav Chanan's previous Kashya (that we need "Zove'ach to teach us 'Mechashvin me'Avodah la'Avodah' by Avodah-Zarah) only valid according to Resh Lakish, but not according to Rebbi Yochanan?

Answers to questions

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