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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sanhedrin 59


(a) We just learned that a Nochri is Chayav Miysah for keeping Shabbos. Which other Mitzvah does Rebbi Yochanan declare outside the domain of a Nochri (which he is also Chayav Miysah for usurping)?

(b) On which Pasuk in Ve'zos ha'Berachah is this based?

(c) Why is this Mitzvah not specifically included in the Sheva Mitzvos, assuming we read the Pasuk ...

  1. ... "Morashah Kehilas Ya'akov" (as indeed it is written)?
  2. ... "Me'orasah Kehilas Ya'akov"?
(a) To whom does the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos "Asher Ya'aseh Osam ha'Adam va'Chai Bahem", refer?

(b) But did we not learn earlier that "Adam" is confined to Yisrael, and does not pertain to Nochrim?

(c) How do we then reconcile Rebbi Yochanan with this Pasuk?

(a) What does Rebbi Chanina ben Gamliel learn from the word "Damo" in the Pasuk in No'ach "Ach Basar be'Nafsho, Damo Lo Sochelu"?

(b) What do the Rabbanan, who do not forbid Dam min ha'Chai, learn from "Damo"?

(c) Who is the author of the continuation of the Beraisa which comments (on the Pasuk in Re'ei) 'ke'Yotzei ba'Davar Atah Omer "Rak Chazak le'Vilti Achol ha'Dam, Ki ha'Dam Hu ha'Nafesh"? What is the Tana saying?

(a) The Rabbanan learn from this Pasuk that Dam Hakazah is forbidden.
Why would we have thought otherwise?

(b) What is the difference between Dam min ha'Chai and Dam Hakazah?

(c) We ask why, having already issued the Mitzvah of Eiver min ha'Chai to the B'nei No'ach, the Torah finds it necessary to repeat it at Sinai.
Why do we not ask the same Kashya with regard to Avodas-Kochavim and Giluy-Arayos?

(a) To answer the Kashya, we cite Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina.
What does Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina say about Mitzvos that were said to the B'nei No'ach ...
  1. ... and were repeated at Sinai (such as Gid-ha'Nasheh)?
  2. ... but were not repeated at Sinai?
(b) Which is the only case that this latter principle incorporates?

(c) Why do we establish this specifically like Rebbi Yehudah? What do the Chachamim say about Gid ha'Nasheh?

(d) Logically, we would expect whatever is repeated at Sinai to pertain exclusively to Yisrael.
What causes Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina to say that it pertains to Nochrim, too?

(a) Initially, we would attribute the Torah's need to repeat the Mitzvos that pertain to the B'nei No'ach at Sinai to the fact that we would otherwise learn them from Gid ha'Nasheh, which is not repeated at Sinai, and which is permitted to the B'nei No'ach.
What is wrong with this theory?

(b) Then why does it repeat them?

(c) Logically, we would expect whatever is not repeated at Sinai to pertain exclusively to B'nei No'ach.
So why does Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina say the opposite?

(d) How will we then explain the fact that a ben No'ach is ...

  1. ... forbidden to take a Y'fas To'ar, whereas a Yisrael is permitted?
  2. ... Chayav for stealing less than a Shaveh P'rutah, even though a Yisrael is Patur?
Answers to questions



(a) What do we ask on Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina's principle from the Mitzvos of Milah in Tazri'a ("u'va'Yom ha'Shemini Yimol"), and P'ru u'Revu in Va'eschanan ("Lech Emor Lahem Shuvu Lachem le'Oholechem")?

(b) What do we answer? Why *does* the Torah repeat the Mitzvah of ...

  1. ... Milah?
  2. ... P'ru u'Revu?
(c) In that case, why can we not apply the same principle to all the seven Mitzvos (in which case they will only pertain to Yisrael, but not to B'nei No'ach)?

(d) Why did Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina say earlier that the only Mitzvah which is not repeated at Sinai is Gid ha'Nasheh according to Rebbi Yehudah?
Why do Milah and Piryah ve'Rivyah, by which the Torah does not issue an independent command, not fall under the same category?

(a) What alternative answer do we give to explain why, in spite of the fact that Milah was repeated at Sinai, it was only given to Yisrael?

(b) In that case, from where do we know that the Mitzvah does not also apply to ...

  1. ... the Bnei Yishmael?
  2. ... the B'nei Eisav?
(c) What does Rebbi Yossi bar Avin (or Rebbi Yossi bar Chanina) then learn from the Pasuk "es B'risi Heifar"? Whom does this come to include?
(a) What does Rav Yehudah Amar Rav learn from the Pasuk ...
  1. ... in Bereishis "Lachem Yihyeh le'Ochlah u'le'Chol Chayas ha'Aretz"?
  2. ... in No'ach "ke'Yerek Eisev Nasati Lachem es Kol"?
  3. ... in No'ach "(Ach) Basar be'Nafsho Lo Socheilu"?
(b) From where does he learn that Sheratzim are not subject to Eiver min ha'Chai?

(c) How does Rav Huna explain the fact that Rav Yehudah precludes Sheratzim from there and not animals?

(a) If Adam was forbidden to eat the flesh of any animal, how could Hashem order him to "rule over ...
  1. ... the fish of the sea"? What use are fish other than as food?
  2. ... the birds"? What can one do with birds, other than eat them?
  3. ... and over all the living creatures ... "?
(b) Why do we add 'according to Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah' in our answer to the Kashya on the birds?

(c) Rebbi Shimon ben Menasyah bemoaned the world's loss as a result of the curse of the snake'.
What would Hashem have given each Jew if the snake had not sinned?

(d) What was the purpose of the rope that would have been placed under its tail?

(a) What does Rebbi Yehudah ben Teima say in a Beraisa about Adam ha'Rishon reclining in Gan Eden? What were the angels doing for him?

(b) What was the snake's reaction to that?

(c) How do reconcile this with the prohibition of eating the flesh of animals?

(d) In what connection do we ...

  1. ... relate the episode with Rebbi Shimon ben Chalafta and the lions?
  2. ... quote the Pasuk in Tehilim "ha'Kefirim Sho'agim la'Taref"?
(a) What happened to the two thighs of flesh that came down from Heaven?

(b) What did the Chachamim reply when Rebbi Shimon ben Chalafta asked in the Beis-Hamedrash whether it was Kasher?

(c) What did Rebbi Zeira ask Rebbi Avahu in this connection?

(d) What did he reply? What did he mean by 'Ya'arod Na'ala'?

Answers to questions

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