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Sanhedrin 56

SANHEDRIN 56 - dedicated anonymously by a subscriber from Teaneck with prayers for a Refu'ah Sheleimah for Esther Basha bas Malka Faiga.


(a) What does our Mishnah require a Megadef to do, before he can become Chayav Sekilah?

(b) What does Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah say?

(c) What does he mean by 'Yossi es Yossi'? Why did he pick specifically that name?

(d) Beis-Din would not sentence the defendant to death however, on the basis of a Kinuy. 'Kinuy' usually mean a nickname.
What does it mean here?

(a) What would the procedure therefore be vis-a-vis the witnesses before Beis-Din would pronounce sentence on the Megadef?

(b) Why did they send everyone else out of the room?

(c) What would the Dayanim do upon hearing the Name of Hashem being cursed?

(d) What does the Tana of the Beraisa mean when he says 'Ad she'Yevarech Shem be'Shem'?

(a) What does Shmuel learn from the repetition of Hashem's Name in the Pasuk in Emor "ve'Nokev Sheim Hashem ... be'Nokvo Sheim Yumas"?

(b) What do we learn from the Pasuk ...

  1. ... in Balak "Mah Ekov Lo Kaboh Keil"?
  2. ... in Mishpatim "Elokim Lo Sekalel"?
(c) What might we learn from the Pasuk ...
  1. ... in Melachim "va'Yikov Chor be'Dalto"?
  2. ... in Re'ei "ve'Ibadtem es Sh'mam, Lo Sa'asun Kein la'Hashem ... "?
(d) We reject this suggestion on the grounds that it would not conform with the required 'Shem be'Shem'.
Why could the Pasuk not be speaking when he ...
  1. ... places one Shem Hashem on top of another and pierces them both?
  2. ... carves the Name of Hashem on the blade of a sword and pierces the Name of Hashem?
(a) What do we suggest that perhaps the Pasuk "ve'Nokev Sheim Hashem" is talking about, based on the Pasuk in Bamidbar "va'Yikach Moshe ... Asher Nikvu be'Sheimos"?

(b) We reject this suggestion per se, because there is no way of doing this 'Sheim be'Sheim'.
Why do we reject it based on ...

  1. ... the warning, "es Hashem Elokecha Tiyra"?
  2. ... the Pasuk in Emor (in connection with the Mekalel) "va'Yikov va'Yekalel"?
(c) And what do we then learn from the Pasuk "Hotzei es ha'Mekalel"?
(a) What does the Beraisa learn from the Lashon "Ish" that the Torah mentions by Megadef? What does it come to include?

(b) Bearing in mind that a Yisrael Megadef is killed by stoning, how is a Nochri Megadef put to death?

(c) Considering that we learn Birchas Hashem by Nochrim from the word "Hashem" (in the Pasuk in Bereishis "va'Yetzav Hashem Elokim" in Bereishis, as we shall see later), we only need "Ish", says Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha, according to Rebbi Meir. What does Rebbi Meir learn from ...

  1. ... the one "Ish" in the Pasuk "Ish Ish Ki Yekalel Elokav ve'Nasa Chet'o"?
  2. ... the second "Ish"?
(d) Why do we need a separate Pasuk to include Nochrim in the Kinuyim?
(a) What do the Chachamim (who argue with Rebbi Meir) nevertheless learn from the Pasuk in Mishpatim "Elokim Lo Sekalel"?

(b) Rebbi Meyashe disagrees with Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha.
What does he learn from the Pasuk (in connection with the Mekalel) "ka'Ger ka'Ezrach"?

(c) Rebbi Meir learns from "ka'Ger ka'Ezrach" that a Nochri receives Sayaf and not Sekilah.
Why might we have thought otherwise?

(d) According to Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha in the Rabbanan (who holds that a Nochri who is Mekalel with a Kinuy is Patur) a Nochri Megadef is Chayav even without Shem be'Shem.
From where does he learn this?

(e) According to both Amora'im in the Rabbanan, why does the Torah write "Ish Ish"?

Answers to questions



(a) The Tana Kama of the Beraisa lists seven Mitzvos that the B'nei No'ach are commanded.
What are they?

(b) Which of the Arayos does the Torah preclude with Hashem's words to Avimelech "ve'Hi Be'ulas Ba'al"?

(c) Rebbi Chananyah ben Gamliel adds blood from a live animal, Rebbi Chidka, the castration of animals, and Rebbi Shimon, Kishuf. Rebbi Yossi incorporates nine cases of magic in 'Kishuf'; Ma'avir B'no u'Vito ba'Eish (Molech), Kosem Kesamim, Me'onen, Menachesh, Mechashef and Chover Chaver.
What are the remaining three?

(d) What is Rebbi Yossi's source to say that all these are forbidden to B'nei No'ach?

(a) Rebbi Elazar includes Kil'ayim in the list.
Which two kinds of Kil'ayim does he incorporate?

(b) Rebbi Yochanan learns the seven Mitzvos of the Tana Kama from a Pasuk in Bereishis. If ...

  1. ... "va'Yetzav" refers to Dinim and "Hashem" to Birchas Hashem, what do we learn from "Elokim"?
  2. ... "ha'Adam" refers to Shefichus-Damim, and "Leimor" to Giluy Arayos, what do we learn from ...
  3. ... "mi'Kol Eitz ha'Gan" teaches us - 'but not from Gezel', then what do we learn from "Achol Tochel"?
(c) Rebbi Yiztchak switched the sources for two of the seven in the list. According to him, "va'Yetzav" refers to Avodah-Zarah.
What does "Elokim" refer to?

(d) What are the ramifications of the Machlokes between Rav Chisda and Rav Yitzchak bar Avdimi, whether we derive the Lashon "va'Yetzav" from the Pasuk in Ki Sisa "Saru Maher min ha'Derech Asher *Tzivisim*, Asu Lahem Eigel Maseichah", or from the Pasuk in Hoshe'a " ... Ki Ho'il Halach Acharei *Tzav*"?

(a) What connection between our Mitzvos and those of the Nochrim does the Beraisa teach us? Which group of *our* Mitzvos serves as *their* warning?

(b) Which of the previous opinions does Rava query from this Beraisa?

(c) Rav Papa answers that the Beraisa comes to preclude specifically embracing and kissing an idol, which is only an ordinary La'av.
Does this mean that one is never Chayav Miysah for doing that?

(a) The Beraisa lists ten Mitzvos which Yisrael were commanded before the Torah was given at Marah. Besides the Sheva Mitzvos B'nei No'ach, which Mitzvah do we learn from the Pasuk in Beshalach "Sham Sam Lo Chok u'Mishpat"?

(b) And which two Mitzvos does Rav Yehudah learn from the Pasuk in Va'eschanan "Ka'asher Tzivcha Hashem Elokecha" (which is written there twice)? In which connection are these Pesukim written?

(c) Rava asks from this Beraisa on the earlier Beraisa which includes Dinim in the seven Mitzvos, since this Beraisa seems to preclude it from the seven Mitzvos.
How does Rava know that Moshe was not saying this at Arvos Mo'av (where the entire Seifer Devarim was learned), with reference to Har Sinai?

(d) What does Rav Nachman Amar Rabah bar Avuhah mean when he answers 'Lo Nitzr'chah Ela le'Eidah, ve'Eidim ve'Hasra'ah? How then, do the Nochri courts operate?

(a) On what grounds do we reject Rav Nachman's answer?

(b) And we reject the next suggestion in the same way.
Which group of 'Dinim' do we initially suggest was added at Marah?

(c) How do we also reject the suggestion that Yisrael were commanded to place Batei-Dinim in every town and province?

(d) Rava finally establishes the Beraisa of Marah like Tana de'Bei Menasheh, who replaces 'Dach' with 'Sach'.
If 'Sach' represents Sirus (the prohibition of castrating an animal) and Kil'ayim, what does 'Dach' represent?

(a) According to Rebbi Yehudah in the Beraisa of Tana de'Bei Menasheh, the B'nei No'ach were only commanded one Mitzvah (which he learns from the same Pasuk as the Tana earlier "va'Yetzav Hashem ... ").
Which one?

(b) Which Mitzvah does Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira add from the next word "Elokim"?

(c) And what is the source of 'Yesh Omrim', who add 'Dinim'?

(d) Which of the above Tana'im does Rav Yehudah Amar Rav follow when he says 'Elokim Ani Lo Sekaleluni; Elokim Ani, Lo Semiruni; Elokim Ani, Yehei Mora'i Aleichem'?

(a) Bearing in mind the source in Bereishis of the earlier Tana, what problem do we have with Tana de'Bei Menasheh, who replaces 'Dach' with 'Sach'?

(b) How do we resolve this?

Answers to questions

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