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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sanhedrin 53


(a) What problem do we have with Rebbi Yashiyah, who holds that S'tam Miysah bi'Yedei Adam receives Chenek? What Miysah ought he to receive?

(b) What do we answer? From where do we know Chenek, according to Rebbi Yashiyah?

(c) And how do we know to whom to give Chenek, according to him?

(d) What is the basis of the Machlokes between Rebbi Yashiyah and Rebbi Yonasan?

(a) What do Avodas-Kochavim, Na'arah ha'Me'urasah, Chilul-Shabbos, Ov ve'Yid'oni and Megadef all have in common?

(b) Rebbi Zeira asked Abaye from which 'Gezeirah-Shavah' we learn it.
What are the two possibilities?

(c) He answered that we learn it from "Demeihem Bam" and not from "Mos Yamusu" (even though both are written by Ov ve'Yid'oni and by all the other cases of Sekilah, and the latter, by the two cases which we will now suggest). How does he prove it? What would be the problem if we learned it from "Mos Yamusu"?

(d) Now that we learn it from "Demeihem Bam", what do we then learn from "Mos Yamusu"?

(a) Rav Acha from Difti asked Ravina why Rebbi Zeira was concerned about the source of the 'Gezeirah-Shavah', whether it was perhaps an Eishes Ish who committed adultery that we would learn from 'Gezeirah-Shavah' of "Mos Yamusu".
What did he reply?

(b) And what did Ravina when he asked him whether it was not Makeh Aviv ve'Imo? Why could we not learn Sekilah by Makeh Aviv ve'Imo via the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Mos Yamusu" from Ov and Yid'oni?

(c) So why was Rebbi Zeira concerned that we might learn the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' from "Mos Yamusu"?

(a) In addition to the five (counting Ov ve'Yid'oni as one) cases of Chayvei Sekilah that we mentioned earlier, our Mishnah now lists another eleven cases.
What is the common source for all of them?

(b) Why is the Torah more stringent by someone who curses his parents than by someone who strikes them?

(c) What is the difference between a Meisis and a Medi'ach?

(d) Seeing as a person can only die once, what is the significance of the Tana Kama's ruling that someone who commits incest with his mother transgresses 'Eishes Av' too?

(a) What does Rebbi Yehudah say about the previous case, where someone commits incest with his mother?

(b) What does our Mishnah say about someone who commits incest with his father's wife (who is not his mother)?

(c) What is the significance of the next words 'Bein be'Chayei Aviv Bein le'Achar Miysah'?

(d) From where does the Tana know that the Chiyuv of Eishes Av applies equally to where they are only betrothed and not yet married?

(e) What is the Din with a daughter-in-law with regard to the three Chumros that the Tana just learned by Eishes Av?

(a) What does Rebbi Yehudah say about a case of Imo whom his father ought not to have married?

(b) But does Rebbi Yehudah in our Mishnah not preclude Eishes Av from Imo under any circumstances?

(c)Why can he not be referring to a case where she belongs to the category of Chayvei Kerisus?

(d) If, as we conclude, he is referring to a case of Chayvei La'avin, since when does Kidushin not take effect by Chayvei La'avin?

Answers to questions



(a) What is an Isur ...
  1. ... Mitzvah?
  2. ... Kedushah?
(b) Why does ...
  1. ... the Tana refer to them in this way?
  2. ... Rebbi Yehudah, who inverts them, refer to them in that way?
(c) What is the Halachic difference between an Isur Kareis on the one hand, and an Isur Mitzvah and Isur Kedushah on the other (regarding Yibum)?
(a) What does Rebbi Yehudah in a Beraisa say about Isur Mitzvah and Isur Kedushah?

(b) He seems to agree however, that they require Chalitzah.
What problem does Rav Hoshaya have with that?

(c) How do we reconcile Rebbi Yehudah there with the fact that here he holds like Rebbi Akiva?

(a) Rebbi Yitzchak cites Rebbi Yehudah in a Beraisa which conforms with his opinion in our Mishnah.
In what context does Abaye cite the Pasuk "Imcha Hi"? What does he extrapolate from there?

(b) According to Abaye, what will we extrapolate from the next Pasuk "Ervas Eishes Avicha Lo Segaleh Ervas Avicha *Hi*"?

(c) Besides the obvious discrepancy between the two contradictory D'rashos, what additional Kashya do we ask from the Rabbanan in our Mishnah?

(a) We therefore conclude that we need "Imcha Hi" for the D'rashah of Rav Shisha B'rei de'Rav Idi, which will be quoted later in the Sugya. Bearing in mind that, in Kedoshim, the Pasuk writes "Demeihem Bam" by Eishes Aviv, what does Rav Shisha B'rei de'Rav Idi learn from "Imcha Hi"?

(b) What will "Ervas Avicha Hi" ten come to include?

(a) What does Rav Acha B'rei de'Rav Ika try to learn from the Pasuk (that follows "Imcha Hi") "Lo Segaleh Ervasah", to resolve Rebbi Yehudah's opinion?

(b) What problem do we have with this from the Pasuk "Ervas Kalascha Lo Segaleh ... Lo Segaleh Ervasah" (based on our Mishnah)?

(c) How do we then justify the Torah's use of the singular Lashon ("Ervasah"), even if one is Chayav two La'avin?

(a) Rava finally explains the Pesukim according to Rebbi Yehudah.
How does he interpret the Pasuk ...
  1. ... "Ervas Avicha" (from a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "from Ervas Aviv" [in connection with Eishes Aviv])?
  2. ... "Ervas Imecha"?
  3. ... "Imcha Hi?
(b) How would we have established the Pasuk "Ervas Avicha", if not for the 'Gezeirah-Shavah'?
Answers to questions

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