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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sanhedrin 51


(a) Seeing as a Mechalel Shabbos receives Sekilah, how could the Beraisa even suggest that a bas Kohen should receive Sereifah? How will establishing it like Rebbi Shimon help?

(b) If so, why does the Pasuk confine this stringency specifically to a bas Kohen? Why should it not extend to a ben Kohen, too?

(c) The Tana initially thought that the Pasuk of bas Kohen was referring to one who is unmarried.
How would we then interpret the word "li'Zenos", which implies that she becomes a Zonah through the current act of adultery? Since when does an immoral act on the part of a Penuyah render her a Zonah?

(a) What does Rava in the name of Rav Yitzchak bar Avdimi learn from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' ...
  1. ... "Heinah" (by bas Bito) from "Heinah" (by bas Bito shel Ishto), both in Acharei-Mos?
  2. ... "Zimah" (by bas Bito, in Acharei-Mos) from "Zimah" (by Sereifas bas Ishto, in Kedoshim)?
(b) Why can we not learn the punishment of Sereifas Bito from a 'Kal va'Chomer' from bas Bito?

(c) In view of the 'Gezeirah-Shavah', sentencing even a *bas Yisrael* to Sereifah for Z'nus with her father, how can the Beraisa even think that "Aviv" comes to confine the Din of Sereifah to a *bas Kohen* who has relations with her father? If that were so, why would we need a special Pasuk by a bas Kohen?

(a) We ask why the Beraisa thought that, without the 'Vav', "bas Kohen" precluded one who was married to a Levi, a Yisrael ... ", seeing as in all of these cases, she is still a bas Kohen.
What second Kashya do we ask on the 'Havah Amina'?

(b) To answer these Kashyos, we quote the next words in the Pasuk "Ki Seichel li'Zenos".
What does that imply? How does it answer our Kashya?

(c) What is then the significance of the Pasuk ...

  1. ... "u'Vas Kohen Ki Sih'yeh le'Ish Zar"?
  2. ... "ve'Shavah el Beis Avihah ki'Ne'urehah"?
(d) The first Pasuk incorporates a bas Kohen who marries a Nasin and a Mamzer, but not a Chalal (which we learn from "ve'Lo Yechalel Zar'o", 'Makish Zar'o Lo').
Why not?
(a) A Yisrael who eats Terumah be'Shogeg must pay the owner the principle plus an extra fifth.
What will be the Din if the person who ate it was a bas Kohen who is married to a Yisrael?

(b) According to the Chachamim in a Beraisa, the same will apply to a bas Kohen who is married to a Pasul, and she will also receive Sereifah, should she commit adultery.
What does Rebbi Meir say?

(c) Who is therefore the author of our current Beraisa?

(d) What distinction does Rebbi Eliezer in our Beraisa draw between the bas Kohen's father and her father-in-law (though it is at first unclear what he means)?

(a) What would be the problem if we interpreted Rebbi Eliezer's statement literally (that if a bas Kohen committed adultery with her father, she would receive Sereifah, with her father-in-law, Sekilah)?

(b) What would Rebbi Eliezer be saying if we interpreted his words to mean 'bi'Reshus Avihah bi'Sereifah, bi'Reshus Chamihah bi'Sekilah'?

(c) Why would this explanation be problematic, according to ...

  1. ... the Rabbanan?
  2. ... Rebbi Shimon?
(d) Nor would this concur with the opinion of Rebbi Yishmael, who agrees with Rebbi Shimon with regard to a Arusah.
What does he hold with regard to a Nesu'ah?
(a) Ravin sent an explanation in the name of Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina.
What did he mean when he equated 'es Avihah' with 'le'Matah mi'Miysas Avihah', and 'es Chamihah' with 'le'Ma'alah mi'Miysas Avihah'? With which Tana will Rebbi Eliezer then concur?

(b) On what grounds does Rebbi Yirmiyah refute Ravina's explanation?

(c) So Rebbi Yirmiyah establishes Rebbi Eliezer like Rebbi Yishmael, in which case 'es Avihah' means bi'Reshus Avihah.
What does 'es Chamihah' then mean?

(d) What objection does Rava raise with Rebbi Yirmiyah's explanation?

Answers to questions



(a) Rava himself establishes Rebbi Eliezer like Rebbi Shimon, and 'es Avihah' means bi'Reshus Avihah' (an Arusah).
How does he then explain 've'es Chamihah bi'Sekilah', when according to Rebbi Shimon, she too, receives Sereifah?

(b) And on what grounds does Rebbi Chanina object to Rava's explanation?

(c) So how does Ravina finally amend Rebbi Eliezer to hold like the Rabbanan?

(d) Why does Rebbi Eliezer then refer to 'es Avihah', and not to 'Arusah'?

(a) What objection does Rav Yosef raise when Rav Nachman Amar Rabah bar Avuhah rules like Ravin in the name of Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina ('Lema'alah min Avihah', 'Le'matah min Avihah')?

(b) What does Abaye retort based on Shechitas Kodshim? What is 'Shechitas Kodshim'?

(c) How did Rav Yosef justify his Kashya? What did he really mean to ask?

(a) How does Rebbi Yishmael establish the status of the bas Kohen in the Pasuk "u'Vas Kohen Ki Seichel Li'zenos"?

(b) Based on the Pasuk "Ish Asher Yinaf es es Eishes Re'ehu Mos Yumas ha'No'ef ve'ha'No'afes", how does he extrapolate that a bas Kohen Nesu'ah receives Chenek (like a bas Yisrael)?

(c) How do we know that a Nesu'ah bas Yisrael receives Chenek?

(d) What does the Tana of the Beraisa learn from the Pasuk in Ki Seitzei "va'Asisem Lo Ka'asher Zamam La'asos le'Achiv"?

(a) Rebbi Akiva (who is the Tana Kama of the Beraisa that we discussed earlier in the Sugya) argues with Rebbi Yishmael. He maintains that a bas Kohen Nesu'ah too, is included in the Chiyuv Sereifah, and he precludes a Penuyah from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' of "Avihah" "Avihah".
What Kashya does Rebbi Yishmael ask on him from his own source?

(b) How does Rebbi Akiva answer the Kashya? From where does he know to include even a Nesu'ah in the Din of Bas Kohen?

(c) On what basis did Rebbi Yishmael continue to query Rebbi Akiva? How did he understand Rebbi Akiva's statement "Bas" "u'Bas" Ani Doresh?

(d) What did Rebbi Akiva really mean, however?

(a) What does Rebbi Yishmael then Darshen from "Bas" "u'Bas"? What would he otherwise have learned from a ben Kohen?

(b) "What does Rebbi Akiva learn from the Pasuk in Emor "Heim Makrivim ve'Hayu Kodesh"?

(c) Why does Rebbi Yishmael still need "Bas" "u'Bas" despite this D'rashah?

(a) Rebbi Yishmael Darshens the Pasuk there "es Avihah Hi Mechaleles" (from which the Tana Kama of the Beraisa learned 'Z'nus Im Zikas Ba'al') like Rebbi Meir.
What does Rebbi Meir in a Beraisa Darshen from this Pasuk?

(b) What does Rav Ashi extrapolate from Rebbi Yishmael with regard to a Rasha ben Tzadik?

(c) How do we explain the conclusion of our Mishnah 'Zu Mitzvas ha'Niskalin'? To what does it refer?

Answers to questions

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