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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sanhedrin 47


(a) Why did Chizkiyah drag his father's bones around town on a bed of ropes?
What did he hope to gain by doing that?

(b) If he was willing to forego his own Kavod, what right did he have to forego that of his father? What does the Pasuk in Tehilim "Nivzeh be'Einav Nim'as" mean in this context?

(c) How do we reconcile Chizkiyah's actions with the possibility that Hesped is a matter of Kavod ha'Chayim", even if it meant that his father had a Kaparah?

(a) Rebbi died in Tzipori.
Where was he buried?

(b) What command did he issue with regard to his own Hesped?

(c) How will we reconcile this with the possibility that Hesped is a matter of Kavod ha'Chayim?

(d) And how will we reconcile the possibility that Hesped is a matter of Kavod ha'Meis with the Beraisa "Helino li'Chevodo ... Eino Over Alav", assuming this to mean that the relative delayed the burial to enhance his own honor?

(a) What does Rebbi Nasan say in a Beraisa about a Meis who is not eulogized or buried, or whose bones are dragged away by a wild animal?

(b) What fourth item does he add to the list?

(c) What do we finally prove from Rebbi Nasan?

(a) The Pasuk in Melachim relates to an incident when people who were burying a Meis spotted a group of bandits.
What happened next?

(b) What does Rebbi Acha bar Chanina learn from this episode?

(c) How do we refute the suggestion that this miracle only occurred in order to fulfill Elisha's request of his Rebbe, Eliyahu "vi'Yehi Na Shenayim Be'Ruchacha"?

(a) How does Rebbi Yochanan explain the fulfillment of Elisha's request, seeing as besides the above incident, Elisha brought only one person back to life, (the son of the Shunamis) like Eliyahu?

(b) What do we learn from the Pasuk in Beha'aloscha (in connection with Miriam's Tzara'as) "Al Na Tehi ka'Meis"?

(c) If as we see from our Mishnah, one may not even bury a big Rasha in the vicinity of a small one, why did they not arrange four grave-yards, one for each of the four Chayvei Miysah?

(a) What does Ula Amar Rebbi Yochanan say about someone who ate Cheilev be'Shogeg and designated his Korban, converted out and came back?

(b) What similar statement does Rebbi Yirmiyah Amar Rebbi Avahu Amar Rebbi Yochanan make?

(c) Having taught us the case of ...

  1. ... 'Heimir Daso', why did Rebbi Yochanan find it necessary to add the case of 'Nishtateh'?
  2. ... 'Nishtateh', why did Rebbi Yochanan find it necessary to add the case of 'Heimir Daso'?
(d) What do we learn from the Pasuk (in Vayikra, in connection with Korbanos) ...
  1. ... "me'Am ha'Aretz?
  2. ... "li'Retzono"?
(a) The Mishnah in Cheilek rules that Kodshei Mizbe'ach that are found in an Ir ha'Nidchas must die (though they are not burned together with everything else).
What does the Tana say about Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis?

(b) How does Rav Yosef try to prove Rebbi Yochanan's two statements from the first of these two Halachos?

(c) How does Abaye refute this proof?

(d) And he proves this from a statement of Rav Sh'mayah.
What does he Darshen (about people who deviated from the ways of the community) from the Pasuk in Emor (in connection with a Kohen) "le'Nefesh Lo Yitama *be'Amav*, Ki im li'Sh'eiro ... "?

(a) How does Rava query Abaye, by differentiating between Meis mi'Toch Rish'o and Neherag mi'Toch Rish'o?

(b) How does he prove his point from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Mizmor le'Asaf ... Nasnu es Nivlas Avadecha Ma'achal le'Of ha'Shamayim, B'sar Chasidecha le'Chayso Aretz"? What distinction does he draw between Chasidim and someone who is Chayav Miysah?

Answers to questions



(a) How does Abaye counter Rava's proof? What distinction does *he* draw between two kinds of Neherag?

(b) How does Abaye's attempt to prove his point from our Mishnah 'Lo Hayu Kovrin Oso be'Kivros Avosav?

(c) How do we counter Abaye's proof?

(d) If Miysas Beis-Din is indeed a Kaparah, why should the relatives then not mourn his death, asks Rav Ada bar Ahavah from our Mishnah 'Lo Hayu Mis'ablin Ela Mis'onenin ... '?
What do we reply?
How do we prove this answer from the continuation of the Mishnah?

(a) Rav Ashi disagrees.
According to him, at which point does ...
  1. ... the Aveilus begin?
  2. ... the Kaparah take effect?
(b) Why then, do the relatives not start to mourn after the pains of the grave begin?

(c) In that case, why do they need to wait for the body to decompose before re-burying it in its ancestral graveyard?

(d) How do we reconcile the Mishnah in Mo'ed Katan, which obligates someone who did not begin the Shiv'ah before Yom-Tov to sit after Yom-Tov, with the principle 'Ho'il ve'Nidchu'?

(a) Why were people taking earth from Rav's gave?

(b) What was the problem with that? What do we learn from a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Sham" (by Miriam's death) "ve'Arfu *Sham* es ha'Eglah" (from Eglah Arufah)?

(c) Shmuel nevertheless condoned their actions, based of the Pasuk in Melachim (in connection with the destruction of idolatry) "va'Yashlech es Afarah al Kever B'nei ha'Am".
What do we learn from ...

  1. ... there?
  2. ... the Pasuk in Re'ei (in connection with idolatry) "Asher Atem Yorshim es *Eloheihem, al he'Harim* ha'Ramim"?
(a) What does the Beraisa say about a grave that someone dug to bury his father, but which remained empty, because he buried him somewhere else?

(b) Assuming that this extends to a grave that he dug for anybody else, too, how do we reconcile this with Shmuel's previous ruling?

(c) The Beraisa rules that a new grave is Mutar be'Hana'ah.
What is a 'new grave'?

(d) How do we reconcile the Seifa of the Beraisa 'Hitil Bah Nefel, Asur be'Hana'ah' with Shmuel's previous ruling?

(a) The Beraisa (which we will also establish by a grave that is built above ground level), discusses three graves. A 'Kever ha'Nimtza' is a grave that is found to have a Meis buried in it without the owner's consent.
What is a 'Kever ha'Yadu'a'?

(b) The Tana rules with regard to Kever ha'Nimtza 'Mutar li'Fenoso, Mekomo Tahor and Mutar be'Hana'ah'.
How do we know that the Meis concerned is not a Meis Mitzvah, who must be buried wherever he is found?

(c) What does he rule with regard to a Kever ha'Yadu'a?

(d) On what basis is the latter grave Tamei even after the body has been removed?

(e) The third grave discussed by the Beraisa is one that causes passers-by damage (by making them Tamei or by preventing them from passing).
Why ...

  1. ... on the one hand, is it not Metamei, once the corpse has been removed?
  2. ... on the other hand, is it Asur be'Hana'ah?
(a) Abaye renders shrouds that were woven on behalf of a Meis, Asur be'Hana'ah.
Why is that?

(b) How does ...

  1. ... Abaye learn this from Eglah Arufah?
  2. ... Rava learn that the shrouds are Mutar be'Hana'ah from Avodas-Kochavim?
(c) Why does ...
  1. ... Rava decline to learn it from Eglah Arufah?
  2. ... Abaye decline to learn it from Avodas-Kochavim?
Answers to questions

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