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Sanhedrin 44

SANHEDRIN 44 (19 Cheshvan) - Dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Chaim Mordechai ben Harav Yisrael Azriel (Feldman) of Milwaukee, by the members of his family.


(a) What does Rebbi Aba bar Zavda extrapolate from the Pasuk in Yehoshua "Chata Yisrael la'Hashem"?

(b) How did Rebbi Aba compare this to a myrtle-tree?

(c) And what does Rav Ila'a in the name of Rebbi Yehudah bar Misparta learn from ...

  1. ... the five times "Gam" that appear in the same Pasuk ("ve'Gam Avru es B'risi ... Gam Lakchu min ha'Cherem ... ")?
  2. ... the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Avru es B'risi" (in Yehoshua) and "es B'risi Heifar" (in Lech-Lecha, in connection with the B'ris Milah)?
  3. ... the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "ve'Chi Asah Nevalah be'Yisrael" (in Yehoshua) and "Ki Asesah Nevalah be'Yisrael" (Ki Seitzei, in connection with a Na'arah ha'Me'urasah)?
(d) Having already taught us that Achan contravened all the five Books of the Torah, why does Rav Ila'a deem it necessary to teach us that he contravened ...
  1. ... the B'ris Milah too?
  2. ... the prohibition of Na'arah ha'Me'urasah?
(a) Ravina disagrees with the second D'rashah of Rav Ila'a.
According to him, why does the Navi use the same Lashon as the Torah uses by Na'arah ha'Me'urasah?

(b) What did Yehoshua destroy besides Achan and the money, the coat and the gold that he took as spoil?

(c) What did Rav Huna initially retort, when the Resh Galusa asked him why Achan's wife and children deserved to die because Achan sinned?

(d) So what is the answer to both questions?

(a) How do we explain the Pasuk "va'Yisrefu Osam ba'Eish va'Yiskelu Osam ba'Avanim"? Why were both punishments necessary?

(b) Among the spoil that Achan took was a coat from Shin'ar (Bavel). Rav translates it as a coat made from clean wool on the day that it was shorn (see Hagahos Maharshal).
How does Shmuel translate it?

(c) What did Yehoshua declare when they dumped the articles that they found in Achan's tent before Hashem?

(d) According to Rebbi Yehudah in a Beraisa, thirty-six men fell in the battle with Ay.
What does Rebbi Nechemyah say?

(a) To whom does Rav Nachman Amar Rav ascribe the Pasuk in Mishlei ...
  1. ... "Tachanunim Yedaber Rosh"?
  2. ... "ve'Ashir Ya'aneh Azus"?
(b) We reject the suggestion that the latter statement refers to ...
  1. ... the previous episode (where Yehoshua dumped the articles before Hashem), by citing Pinchas, who did the same thing.
    To what does this refer?
  2. ... Yehoshua's question "Lamah He'avarta He'evir es ha'Am ha'Zeh es ha'Yarden" by citing a similar statement of Moshe Rabeinu.
    Which statement?
(c) The first of the two previous D'rashos is based on the Pasuk in Tehilim "va'Ya'amod Pinchas va'Yefalel, va'Te'atzer ha'Magefah".
How does Rebbi Elazar interpret the word "ve'Yefalel"?

(d) To which statement of Yehoshua does the Pasuk "ve'Ashir Ya'aneh Azus" then refer?

(a) According to Rebbi Shiloh, when Hashem ordered Yehoshua "Kum Lach", He was insinuating that his sin was worse than Yisrael's.
Which sin?

(b) What objection does Rav raise to this explanation? What does the Pasuk in Yehoshua say about Yehoshua that refutes it?

(c) So how does Rav interpret the phrase "Kum Lach"? Why was Yehoshua then held responsible for the defeat of Ay?

(d) What did Hashem therefore command Yehoshua?

(a) Why do we query Yehoshua for greeting the angel that appeared to him before the battle against Yericho? What did Rebbi Yochanan rule that renders it forbidden?

(b) What is wrong with giving Shalom to a demon? What does that have to do with prostrating oneself to him?

(c) How do we know that the episode with Yehoshua took place at night-time anyway?

(d) How then, was Yehoshua's action justifiable? How did he know that it was a demon after all?

(e) Why was he not afraid that the demon was lying?

Answers to questions



(a) Which two sins did the angel accuse Yehoshua of having committed? When did he commit them?

(b) How do we know that the sin of Bitul Torah was the more prominent of the two?

(c) Yehoshua's reaction to the angel's reproof lies in the words "va'Yalen Yehoshua ba'Laylah ha'Hu be'Soch ha'Emek".
What does this imply?

(d) But this Pasuk appears before the battle with Ay, not Yericho?

(e) What does Shmuel bar Unya in the name of Rav extrapolate from this incident?

(a) Why did the Ru'ach Paskanis deem it necessary to give Hashem Musar (Kevayachol)? What had Hashem said about Yisrael's ancestry in a Pasuk in Yechezkel? Who is 'Ru'ach Paskanis'?

(b) What authority does an angel have to speak to Hashem in this way?

(c) And what is the significance of his other name ...

  1. ... 'Itmun'?
  2. ... 'Sigrun'?
(a) What does Rebbi Elazar comment concerning Avraham's Tefilah "between Beis-Eil and Ay"? What Tzarah does this refer to?

(b) This explains the Pasuk "ha'Ya'aroch Shu'acha Lo ve'Tzar", said to Iyov by his friends.
What does that mean?

(c) What does Rebbi Yochanan add to Resh Lakish's statement 'If someone Davens deeply here, he will have no adversaries in Heaven'?

(a) What does the Beraisa learn from the Pasuk in Divrei Hayamim "u'Venei Zerach, Zimri, ve'Eisan, ve'Heiman, ve'Chalkol va'Dara, *Kulam Chamishah*"?
Who was Zimri?

(b) Rav and Shmuel argue over Achan's two names. One says that his real name was Achan, and that he was called Zimri, because he behaved like the infamous Zimri ben Salu.
What does the other one say? What is the root of the word 'Ichan'?

(a) The Chachamim in our Mishnah maintain that we do not allow the condemned man to preclude the sin for which he is being executed, from his confession, because then everyone will take advantage of the opportunity to clear his name.
Why should this bother us?

(b) The story is told of someone being taken out to be killed, who made a declaration, in accordance with Rebbi Yehudah's opinion.
What did he add to that?

(c) Who was that person? Why in fact, did the Rabbanan concede to Rebbi Yehudah in that case?

(d) The story began with the mixing up of two coffins, with the result that a wicked tax-collector received the burial of a Tzadik, and the Tzadik, that of a Rasha.
What was the cause of the mix-up?

(a) What did the Tzadik show his grieving Talmid in a dream regarding ...
  1. ... himself?
  2. ... the wicked tax-collector?
(b) To what did he attribute the mix-up of the coffins? Why did ...
  1. ... he suffer such in ignominious end?
  2. ... the evil tax-collector receive such an honorable burial?
(c) He also explained to his Talmid that the Rasha was destined to suffer in Gehinom until Shimon ben Shetach died and took his place.
Why was that?

(d) When that Talmid informed Shimon ben Shetach of his fate, he sprang into action.
How did he convince the witches that he was their superior?

(a) What did the young men do upon entering the room? Why was this necessary?

(b) What did Shimon ben Shetach subsequently do with them? Why did he not kill them by stoning, their regular death-sentence?

(c) How did the families of the witches react to Shimon ben Shetach's justice?

(a) Our Mishnah then discusses the actual putting to death of the condemned man.
What would they do him after he had confessed?

(b) According to Rebbi Yehudah, they would cover a man in front and a woman at the back too.
What do the Chachamim say?

Answers to questions

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