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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sanhedrin 24


(a) Ravin explains our Mishnah differently than Rav Dimi. According to him, the Reisha speaks about Pasul witnesses and Kasher judges.
What does he mean by that? How does it explain the Mishnah?

(b) How does he then establish the Seifa?

(c) What problem do we have with the Seifa, where we believe the defendant to disqualify the claimant's witnesses with a 'Migu'?

(d) Why is this not a problem in the Reisha, where we believe him to disqualify the judge?

(a) How does Ravin circumvent the problem in the Seifa?

(b) If there was no second pair of witnesses, then the defendant would not be believed, which in effect, is what Rav Dimi holds too.
Then over which point do Ravin and Rav Dimi argue?

(a) How did Ula describe Resh Lakish in the Beis-Hamedrash?

(b) What does this prompt Ido to ask, in connection with Resh Lakish's reference to Rebbi Meir as 'Peh Kadosh'?

(c) Why was Ravina surprised at the Kashya? How did he describe Rebbi Meir (compared to Resh Lakish)?

(d) So what did Ido really mean to say about Resh Lakish?

(a) We find a similar display of Midos with Rebbi.
What did Rebbi say with regard to 'Hatmanah' of something cold on Shabbos, to prevent it from becoming warm?

(b) How did he react when Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi quoted his father who permitted it?

(c) What does Rav Papa comment on Rebbi's words? What does he say about Rebbi Yossi (had he been alive in the time of Rebbi)?

(d) From where does he learn that?

(a) Zecharyah took two sticks.
What was the significance of the one that he called ...
  1. ... 'No'am'?
  2. ... 'Chovlim'?
(b) Why did he refer to the former as 'B'nei ha'Yitzhari' (meaning 'oil'), and the latter as 'Zayis'.

(c) He also saw two women with wings like storks. How does Rebbi Yochanan in the name of Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai explain the significance of ...

  1. ... the storks ('Chasidah')?
  2. ... the fact that the 'Eifah' (the Yeitzer-ha'Ra) lifted them up?
(d) Where were these women going?
(a) How do we reconcile this with Mar, who said that nine-tenths of the Midah of haughtiness went to Eilam?

(b) How do we prove this from Zecharyah himself, who said "Li'venos Lah Bayis be'Eretz Shin'ar (which is Bavel)"?

(c) How do we reconcile this with Mar, who said that poverty is a sign of haughtiness, and it was in Bavel that they were poverty-stricken, not in Eilam?

(d) And we prove this from Rebbi Yochanan's interpretation of the Pasuk in Shir Hashirim "Achos Lanu Ketanah, ve'Shadayim Ein Lah".
How did Rebbi Yochanan explain this? What did Bavel have in contrast?

(a) What is the Machlokes between Rebbi Meir and the Chachamim in our Mishnah in a case where one litigant says to ...
  1. ... the other 'Ne'eman Alai Aba, Ne'eman Alai Avicha, Ne'emanim Alai Sheloshah Ro'ei Bakar'?
  2. ... the litigant who is Chayav a Shevu'ah to him 'Swear to me by the life of your head' (instead of making a real Shevu'ah)?
(b) What does Rav Dimi B'rei de'Rav Nachman mean when he comments on the Reisha of our Mishnah 'K'gon de'Kiblei Alei be'Chad'?

(c) Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel establishes our Mishnah when the claimant says 'Machul Lach'.
What will the Tana'im say in a case where it is the defendant who says 'Eten Lach'? Why is that?

(a) What does Rebbi Yochanan say?

(b) What are the two possible connotations of Rebbi Yochanan's words?

(c) Rava states that Rebbi Meir and the Rabbanan argue by 'Eten Lach'.
What will they say by 'Machul Lach'? Assuming that he is referring to the above Machlokes, what does this prove?

(d) How do we refute that proof? Whose opinion might Rava really be quoting?

(a) In the case in the Seifa 'Dur Li be'Chayei Roshcha ... ', who is speaking, the claimant or the defendant?

(b) What Kashya does Rav Huna bar Tachlifa pose from there on Rava?

(c) What did Rava reply? In which case would the claimant be able to say such a thing to the defendant?

(d) Bearing in mind the Reisha, what is the problem with establishing the Seifa in this way?

Answers to questions



(a) How do we then reconcile the two Mishnah's? What is ...
  1. ... 'Toleh be'Da'as Acherim'?
  2. ... 'Toleh be'Da'as Atzmo'?
(b) Having presented the Machlokes by
  1. ... 'Toleh be'Da'as Acherim', why does the Tana need to repeat it by 'Toleh be'Da'as Atzmo'?
  2. ... 'Toleh be'Da'as Atzmo', why does the Tana need to repeat it by 'Toleh be'Da'as Acherim'?
(c) Rebbi Elazar confines the Machlokes to before the G'mar-Din (Beis-Din's final ruling).
What will the Tana'im say after the 'G'mar-Din'?

(d) Rebbi Yochanan says 'le'Achar G'mar-Din Machlokes'.
What are the two connotations of Rebbi Yochanan's statement?

(a) Rava permits a defendant who undertook to accept the ruling of a Karov or Pasul to retract before the G'mar-Din, but not afterwards.
What do we prove from there? What would be the problem if Rebbi Yochanan were to establish the Machlokes even before the G'mar-Din?

(b) Why do we not answer that Rava holds like Rebbi Meir according to Resh Lakish?

(c) Rav Nachman bar Rav Chisda (or Rav Yitzchak) sent Rav Nachman bar Ya'akov a dual She'eilah. He asked him whether Rebbi Meir and the Chachamim argue before the G'mar-Din or after it.
What was the second half of the She'eilah?

(d) What reply did Rav Nachman bar Ya'akov send him back?

(a) According to Rav Ashi, the She'eilah the one Rav Nachman sent the other was whether they argue (in the Reisha) about 'Eten Lach' or 'Machul Lach' and what is the Halachah.
What was his reply?

(b) The above is the Suri'an version of the She'eilah. In Pumbedisa However, Rebbi Chanina bar Shalmaya cited Bei Rav who sent to Shmuel the She'eilah what the Din would be before the G'mar-Din, but in the event that they made a Kinyan.
What was Shmuel's reply?

(a) Three of the four kinds of people whom our Mishnah disqualifies from testifying in Beis-Din are 'ha'Mesachek be'Kuvya, ha'Malveh be'Ribis, u'Mafrichei Yonim'.
What is 'Mesachek be'Kuvsya'?

(b) What is the fourth item on the list? On what common basis does The Tana disqualify them from testifying?

(c) What else are they disqualified from doing?

(d) According to Rebbi Shimon, what did they call the 'Sochrei Shevi'is' before the Anasin came along?

(e) Rebbi Yehudah has a more lenient view with regard to the Tana Kama's list.
How does he qualify it?

(a) According to Rami bar Chama, a gambler is Pasul because 'Asmachta Lo Kanya'.
What does that mean?

(b) Rav Sheishes disagrees with Rami bar Chama, because he does not consider this 'Asmachta'.
What is 'Asmachta', in his opinion?

(c) So what reason does he give for the P'sul of 'Mesachek be'Kuvya'?

(d) What are the ramifications of their Machlokes?

(a) How do we prove Rav Sheishes right from the Mishnah itself?

(b) Why does this pose a Kashya on Rami bar Chama?

(c) We initially refute the suggestion that Rami bar Chama holds like the Chachamim, who argue with Rebbi Yehudah, because of a statement by Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi.
What does he say about 'Eimasai' and 'Bameh Devarim Amurim' of Rebbi Yehudah?

(d) With which point of Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi does Rebbi Yochanan disagree?

(e) So how do we reconcile Rami bar Chama with our Mishnah?

Answers to questions

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