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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sanhedrin 17


(a) The Rabbanan in our Mishnah learn from the Pasuk in Beha'aloscha "ve'Hisyatzvu Sham *Imach*" that a Beis-Din consists of seventy-one judges. How does Rebbi Yehudah (who requires only seventy) explain "Imach"?

(b) So the Rabbanan switch to the Pasuk "ve'Nas'u *Itach* be'Masa ha'Am". What does Rebbi Yehudah learn from there?

(c) The Rabbanan learn that from the Pasuk in Yisro "ve'Hakeil me'Alecha ve'Nas'u Itach".
What is the basic difference between the Pasuk in Beha'aloscha and the Pasuk in Yisro?

(d) So how do they know that the above D'rashah pertains to the Sanhedrin ha'Gedolah, too?

(a) What problem did Moshe face, when Hashem told him to pick seventy elders to sit on the Sanhedrin ha'Gedolah?

(b) How did he solve it?

(c) How did he solve a similar problem with the two hundred and seventy-three Bechorim in excess of the twenty-two thousand Levi'im, each of whom redeemed a Bechor?

(d) What actually happened (regarding Eldad and Meidad), according to the opinion that holds - 'be'Kalpi Nishtayru'?

(a) What actually happened, according to the opinion that holds - 'be'Kalpi Nishtayru'?

(b) Rebbi Shimon disagrees.
What does he say?

(c) What reward did they receive for their humility?

(a) According to the Tana Kama of the Beraisa, Eldad and Meidad prophesied about Moshe dying in the desert and Yehoshua leading Yisrael into Eretz Yisrael, whereas according to Aba Chanin in the name of Rebbi Eliezer, they prophesied about the imminent arrival of the quails.
What did they prophesy, according to Rav Nachman?

(b) How does Rav Nachman amend the Pasuk in Yechezkel (in connection with Gog and Magog, with direct reference to the early prophets "ha'Nib'im ba'Yamim ha'Heim, *Shanim* le'Havi Oscha Aleihem"? What does he prove from there?

(c) Based on the Pasuk in Va'eschanan "Kol Gadol ve'Lo Yasaf", we refute the source that Eldad and Meidad did not stop prophesying as being from the Pasuk "va'Yisnab'u *ve'Lo Yasafu"*.
What does "ve'Lo Yasaf" mean there?

(d) So we prove it from another source.
What is the significance of the difference between the Lashon "Misnab'im" and "va'Yisnab'u"? Where is each of these written?

(a) When Yehoshua heard their prophesy, he ran straight to Moshe with the request "Kela'em".
What does "Kela'em" mean?

(b) We can well understand Yehoshua's zeal, according to the first opinion (that of the Tana Kama of the Beraisa).
But why was he so upset, according to the other two opinions?

(c) On the other hand, we can easily see why Moshe's answer, which expressed the wish that all the people of Hashem would become prophets, according to the latter two opinion, but how will we explain it according to the first opinion, bearing in mind his frustration at not being allowed to enter Eretz Yisrael, and on top of that being told that his Talmid would re-place him?

(a) Notwithstanding Rebbi Yehudah, according to whom it was possible for the Sanhedrin ha'Gedolah to be evenly divided, what was the minimum majority in ...
  1. ... matters that did not involve the death-sentence?
  2. ... sentencing someone to death?
(b) How is possible to find an even number of judges by a Sanhedrin ha'Ketanah, even according to the Rabbanan of Rebbi Yehudah?

(c) When Rebbi Avahu said 'be'Mosifin, Osin Beis-Din Shakul Lechatchilah', we ask 'P'shita?'
How do we answer this? Why might we otherwise have thought that the Sanhedrin still consists of an odd number of judges?

(d) What are then the ramifications of Rebbi Avahu's statement?

(a) What does Rav Kahana say about a case where the entire Sanhedrin considered the defendant guilty of the death sentence?

(b) What is the reason for this ruling?

(a) Rebbi Yochanan lists the various requirements of a judge.
Why was it essential for the judges to be ...
  1. ... tall and with a striking appearance?
  2. ... conversant with witchcraft?
  3. ... knowledgeable in all seventy languages?
(b) What final requirement does Rebbi Yochanan require?

(c) Rav adds that they also needed to be able to find a reason to be Metaher a Sheretz (see Agados Maharsha).
How did Rav himself attempt to do so (from a snake)?

(d) On what grounds do we refute his proof (from a thorn)?

Answers to questions



(a) Rav Yehudah Amar Rav requires a town to have two judges who speak all seventy languages in order to qualify for a Beis-Din.
How many judges in addition, must at least understand them?

(b) Beitar had three such judges. Yavneh had more.
Whom does Rav list besides Rebbi Eliezer, and Rebbi Yehoshua in the latter?

(c) What does the Beraisa mean when it says 'Shelishis Chochmah, Revi'is Ein le'Ma'alah Mimenu'? Why does this pose a Kashya on Rav?

(d) How will Rav answer it?

(a) Who is meant by 'Lemeidin Lifnei Chachamim'?

(b) 'Danin Lifnei Chachamim' refers to two Shimons, as well as Chanan ha'Mitzri and Chananya ben Chachinai.
Which two Shimons?

(c) Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak adds a third Shimon to the list.
What is his name?

(d) What did all of these have in common? Why are they described as 'Danin Lifnei Chachamim?

(a) 'Raboseinu 'she'be'Bavel' refers to Rav and Shmuel, and 'Daynei Golah' to Karna.
Who is described as ...
  1. ... 'Raboseinu she'be'Eretz Yisrael'?
  2. ... 'Daynei Eretz Yisrael'?
(b) Rav Papa bar Shmuel carries the title of 'Dayni de'Pumbedisa', and Rav Ada bar Minyumi, of 'Dayni de'Neharda'a.
Which famous Rebbe and Talmid-Chaver were known as 'Sabi de'Sura?

(c) Rav Yehudah and Rav Eina are called 'Sabi de'Pumbedisi, and the two brothers, Eifah and Avimi, as 'Charifi de'Pumbedisa'.
What was the name of their father?

(d) Rabah and Rav Yosef, Amora'im who also lived in Pumbedisa.
What title did they bear?

(a) 'Amora'i de'Neharda'a' refers to Rav Chama, and according to the Neharbela'i, Rami bar B'rivi.
Why can 'Amri Bei Rav' not refer to Rav Huna?

(b) Then to whom does it refer?

(c) With regard to the Amora'im of Eretz Yisrael, we initially describe Rebbi Yirmiyah as 'Amri be'Ma'arva'. 'Shalchu mi'Tam' (which is short for 'Shalchu me'Hasam').
Who is described as Machku Aleih be'Ma'arva'?

(d) Based on the fact that we sometimes find 'Shalchu mi'Tam', le'Divrei Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina', how do we amend the list of the Yerushalmi Amora'im?

(a) We learned in our Mishnah that to qualify for a Beis-Din of twenty-three, a town had to have a hundred and twenty residents.
Besides the twenty-three members of Beis-Din themselves and the Asarah Batlanim, how do we account for the first hundred and two residents?

(b) What are the 'Asarah Batlanim'?

(c) Then there are the two litigants in any Din Torah, plus the two Sofrim (who record the litigants' arguments) and the two Chazanim.
What are Chazanim?

(a) What is the composition of the six witnesses, (which brings the total up to a hundred and fourteen)?

(b) What is the significance of the two Zomemei Zomemin?

(c) The remaining six are based on a list of a town's requirements, before a Talmid-Chacham may live there.
How many requirements does the Beraisa list?

(d) This town requires a Beis-Din that issues corporal punishment and punishes evil-doers, and it must have a Tzedakah fund.
How many people does the latter entail?

(a) What other two things must the town have besides a Shul?

(b) And what else must it have besides a doctor, an Uman and a Lavlar?

(c) What is ...

  1. ... an 'Uman'?
  2. ... a 'Lavlar'?
(d) How many people does this last group of people entail?
(a) Rebbi Akiva adds a variety of fruit to the above list.

(b) Rebbi Nechemyah in our Mishnah requires a residency of at least two hundred and thirty people, as we already learned.
On what grounds does Rebbi add ...

  1. ... in one Beraisa forty-seven people?
  2. ... in another Beraisa, forty-eight?
(c) Following the advice of Yisro, Moshe set up 78,600 judges (in the form of Sanhedrei Ketanos.
How many judges did he appoint as ...
  1. ... 'officers of thousands'?
  2. ... 'officers of hundreds?
  3. ... 'officers of fifty'?
  4. ... 'officers of ten'?
***** Hadran Alach 'Diynei Mamonos bi'Sheloshah' *****

Answers to questions

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