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Sanhedrin 16

SANHEDRIN 16 (21 Tishrei, Hoshana Raba) - dedicated by Gedalyah Jawitz of Wantagh, N.Y., honoring the Yahrtzeit of his father, Yehuda ben Simcha Volf Jawitz.


(a) How does Rav Masna establish the meaning of 'Sheivet' in our Mishnah ('Ein Danin es ha'Sheivet ...') in light of the Kashya from the Beraisa of Rebbi Yashiyah and Rebbi Yonasan?

(b) What sin did he perform?

(c) And we interpret it this way on the basis of Rav Ada bar Ahavah.
How will Rav Ada bar Ahavah shortly interpret the Pasuk in Yisro (in connection with Yisro's advice) ''Kol ha'Davar ha'Gadol Yavi'u Eleicha"?

(d) How can he extrapolate from there that a great man requires seventy-one judges, seeing as the Pasuk is talking about bringing his lawsuit to Moshe?

(a) Ula Amar Rebbi Elazar attempts to re-establish the Mishnah literally, not with regard to Avodah-Zarah, but with regard to 'Nachalos'.
What does he mean by that? Why should Nachalos require a Beis-Din of seventy-one?

(b) We reject this suggestion however, on the grounds that, in that case, three other things, which the Tana omits, should also be required. What are they?

(c) So we are forced to revert to the previous explanation of Rav Masna. Ravina however, re-establishes our Mishnah with regard to a tribe that served Avodah-Zarah.
How does he resolve the problem of the fact that the inhabitants are punished like individuals and receive Sekilah?

(d) And he bases this on Rebbi Chama b'Rebbi Yossi Amar Rebbi Oshaya, who interprets the Pasuk in Shoftim "ve'Hotzeisa es ha'Ish ha'Hu ... el She'arecha" 'Ish ve'Ishah Atah Motzi li'She'arecha, ve'I Atah Motzi Kol ha'Ir el She'arecha'.
What are the twin ramifications of this D'rashah?

(a) Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina learns the Din of the Mishnah that a Navi Sheker requires a Beis-Din of seventy-one via a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Hazadah" ("Ach ha'Navi Asher Yazid") "Hazadah" ("ve'ha'Ish Asher Ya'aseh be'Zadon") from a Zakein Mamrei.
On what grounds do we reject this 'Gezeirah-Shavah'?
In which connection is the second "Hazadah" written?

(b) So Resh Lakish learns it from "Davar" ("Asher Yazid Le'daber") "Davar" ("ve'Asisa al-Pi ha'Davar Asher Yorucha").
Where (in which connection) is the second "Davar" written)?

(c) Why do we not then learn from "Hazadah" "Hazadah" from a Navi Sheker that the death of a Zakein Mamrei should also require seventy-one judges?

(a) Which Pasuk in Yisro does Rav Ada bar Ahavah give as the source of our Mishnah, which requires a Beis-Din of seventy-one for a Kohen Gadol?

(b) We have a problem with this however, from a Beraisa.
Based on the Pasuk there "es ha'Davar ha'Kasheh Yevi'un el Moshe", how does the Tana interpret the previous Pasuk?

(c) We answer that Rav Ada bar Ahavah bases his interpretation on another Beraisa. Bearing in mind the D'rashah of the first Tana, on what grounds does this Tana interpret "ha'Davar ha'Gadol" like Rav Ada bar Ahavah? What is the basis of their Machlokes?

(d) Why does the second Tana decline to learn like the first one?

(a) Initially, Rebbi Avahu tries to learn the Din in our Mishnah 'Ein Motzi'in le'Milchemes ha'Reshus Ela al-Pi Beis-Din shel Shiv'im-ve'Echad' from the Pasuk in Pinchas.
How does he interpret "ve'Lifnei Elazar ha'Kohen Ya'amod ...
  1. ... "Hu"? To whom does "Hu" refer?
  2. ... "ve'Chol B'nei Yisrael Ito"?
  3. ... "ve'Chol ha'Eidah"?
(b) How do we reject this proof? If the Pasuk is not speaking about going to war, what might it then be speaking about?

(c) So Rav Acha bar Bizna Amar Rebbi Shimon Chasida learns it from David Hamelech.
How did David Hamelech wake up every night on the dot of midnight?

(d) What would David then do until dawn-break?

(a) What would David reply when the Chachamim informed him that Yisrael needed Parnasah?

(b) How would the Chachamim react to that?

(c) Whom would they then consult before asking the Sanhedrin and the Urim ve'Tumim for a final decision about going to war? Why was that?

Answers to questions



(a) Based on Pesukim in Divrei Hayamim and Shmuel, what was the role played by ...
  1. ... Benayahu ben Yehoyada?
  2. ... Evyasar? Who was Evyasar?
  3. ... Yo'av?
(b) Seeing as the Pasuk in Shmuel writes "u'Benayahu ben Yehoyada al ha'Kereisi ve'al ha'P'leisi", how do we know that he was not actually in charge of the Urim ve'Tumim?

(c) Why was the Urim ve'Tumim called ...

  1. ... Kereisi?
  2. ... Peleisi?
(d) What does Rebbi Yitzchak bar Avudimi learn from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Urah Chevodi Urah, ha'Neivel ve'Chinor"?
(a) What does Rav Shimi bar Chiya Darshen from the Pasuk in Terumah "ke'Chol Asher Ani Mar'eh Oscha, es Tavnis ha'Mishkan ... ve'Chein Ta'asu"?

(b) The holy vessels of the Mishkan were sanctified by being anointed with the anointing oil.
What does the Beraisa say about subsequent vessels that needed to be manufactured?

(c) We answer the discrepancy between our Mishnah and this Beraisa, by quoting the Pasuk in Naso "va'Yimshachem va'Yekadesh Osam".
What do we learn from there?

(d) What problem do we have with that? How else might we explain "Osam"?

(a) So Rav Papa quotes the Pasuk in Bamidbar "Asher Yesharsu Bam ba'Kodesh". However, the Torah also writes "ve'Chein Ta'asu".
So how do we know that the vessels require service exclusively, and that one does not have the option of anointing them, like we just asked?

(b) How do we know that the option of service was not available in the Mishkan too, seeing as the Torah writes "Asher Yesharsu Bam ba'Kodesh"?

(c) And from where do we know that appointing a Sanhedrin requires a Beis-Din of seventy-one?

(a) We derive the obligation to appoint judges and law-enforcement officers in Yisrael from the Pasuk "Shoftim ve'Shotrim Titen Lecha".
What do we learn from the Pasuk ...
  1. ... "Shoftim ve'Shotrim Titen Lecha bi'(Chol) She'arecha"?
  2. ... "Shoftim ve'Shotrim Titen Lecha be'*Chol* She'arecha"?
(b) What does Raban Shimon ben Gamliel learn from "li'Shevatecha ve'Shaftu"?

(c) In which connection does Rebbi Chiya bar Yosef Amar Rebbi Oshaya quote the Pasuk "ve'Hotzeisa es *ha'Ish ha'Hu* ... el She'arecha"?

(a) What do we learn from the Pasuk in Re'ei (in connection with an Ir ha'Nidachas) ...
  1. ... "mi'Kirbecha"?
  2. ... "Achas"?
  3. ... "Arecha"?
(b) Sometimes Rav would restrict the prohibition of declaring three towns Arei Nidachas to one Beis-Din (but two or three Batei-Din may). On other occasions - he extended the prohibition even to two or three Batei-Din.

(c) What is the reason behind the latter opinion of Rav?

(a) Resh Lakish permits declaring two or three towns Arei ha'Nidachas in different areas.
On what grounds does Rebbi Yochanan hold that even that is forbidden?

(b) In the Beraisa in support of Rebbi Yochanan, what does the Tana say with regard to ...

  1. ... one Ir ha'Nidachas in Yehudah and one in Galil?
  2. ... two Arei Nidachas in Yehudah or two in Galil?
(c) What reason does the Tana give for the prohibition of declaring an Ir ha'Nidachas beside the border?

(d) Why does the Tana need a reason, seeing as the Torah writes "mi'Kirbecha"?

Answers to questions

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