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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sanhedrin 12


(a) Why does the Beraisa forbid the declaration of a leap-year in times of famine?

(b) What is special about the fruit that grows in the vicinity of Ba'al Shalishah?

(c) What can we therefore deduce from the Pasuk in Melachim, which informs us that a man from Ba'al Shalishah brought Elisha twenty barley loaves?

(d) How do we know that this episode took place after the Omer had been brought (on the second day of Pesach)?

(e) So what does Rebbi in a Beraisa prove from there?

(a) What will be the Din if Beis-Din declare a leap-year before Rosh Hashanah?

(b) We question this from a Beraisa however.
Which town is the Tana referring to when he mentions Re'kes?

(c) What happened to the pair of witnesses that was sent from Teverya to Bavel?

(d) What were they bringing with them that was made in Luz?

(a) When they were eventually set free, they told Rava about the Amusei Yereichei Nachshon who tried to fix a Netziv, but who were prevented by the ruling power.
Who were the 'Amusei Yereichei Nachshon'?

(b) What is a 'Netziv' in this context?

(c) How do we learn this from the Pasuk in Melachim "ve'li'Sh'lomoh Sh'neim-Asar *Netzivim* ve'Chilkelu es ha'Melech"? What does the word mean there?

(d) What does the Pasuk then refer to when it adds "u'Netziv Echad Asher ba'Aretz" (besides possibly the commissioner who served during the extra month of a leap-year)?

(a) What problem did the Beis-Din in Teverya initially have with fixing a leap-year?

(b) What did they nevertheless manage to achieve? What is meant by the month in which Aharon died?

(c) How do we reconcile this with the Beraisa, which forbids fixing a leap-year before Rosh Hashanah? What is then the reason for the restriction?

(d) If Beis-Din do declare a leap-year immediately after Rosh Hashanah, will it affect the month that they add? Might they for example, fix a second Kislev?

(a) What does the Beraisa say about Beis-Din declaring this year a leap-year in anticipation of next year's problems?

(b) Why does the Tana not permit them to fix three consecutive leap-years in one sitting?

(c) How do the Rabanan refute Rebbi Shimon's Kashya from Rebbi Akiva, who did just that?

(a) On what grounds does another Beraisa forbid fixing a leap-year in ...
  1. ... the Sh'mitah-year?
  2. ... the year following the Sh'mitah?
(b) Why was it customary to fix it in the year prior to the Sh'mitah?

(c) Why does Raban Shimon ben Gamliel disagree with the middle statement of the Tana Kama?

(d) This Machlokes is equivalent to another Machlokes Tana'im. The Tana Kama in a Beraisa forbids bringing vegetables from Chutz la'Aretz into Eretz Yisrael. Raboseinu permit it.
What is the basis of their Machlokes?

(a) The Tana Kama forbids Beis-Din to declare a leap-year because of Tum'ah.
What does this mean?

(b) What is the reason for their prohibition?

(c) On what grounds do we initially think Rebbi Yehudah permits it?

Answers to questions



(a) According to Rebbi Yehudah in another Beraisa, Chizkiyahu King of Yehudah fixed a leap-year because Yisrael were Tamei.
What kind of Tum'ah are we talking about?

(b) Then why was he sorry for having done so?

(c) According to Rebbi Shimon, he was sorry for having fixed Nisan in Nisan. What does Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah say in the name of Rebbi Shimon?

(a) According to Rebbi Shimon, the Tzitz (the golden ornament that the Kohen Gadol wore across his forehead, atoned whether he was wearing it or not.
What does Rebbi Yehudah say?

(b) What did Rebbi Yehudah reply when Rebbi Shimon asked him from Yom Kipur? How did they know that the Kohen Gadol did not wear the Tzitz on Yom Kipur?

(c) What discrepancy does this create in Rebbi Yehudah himself?

(d) We answer by first pointing out that Rebbi Yehudah contradicts himself even without the second Beraisa.
How does he do that?

(a) So how do we amend the first Beraisa ('Ein Me'abrin es ha'Shanah Mipnei ha'Tum'ah. Rebbi Yehudah Omer, Me'abrin'), to resolve both discrepancies in one stroke?

(b) How does Rava then reconcile the opinion of the Tana Kama with that of Rebbi Shimon, who seems to be saying the same thing ('Im Mipnei ha'Tum'ah Ibruhah, Me'uberes')?

(a) According to Rebbi Shimon, Chizkiyahu was sorry for declaring Nisan in Nisan, as we explained. We have a problem with that however, from the Pasuk in Bo "ha'Chodesh *ha'Zeh* Lachem".
What do we Darshen from there that poses a Kashya on Chizkiyahu's initial ruling?

(b) And we answer this with a statement by Shmuel.
What did Shmuel say about declaring a leap-year on the thirtieth of Adar?

(c) How do we know that this is indeed what Rebbi Shimon holds?

(d) Rav Asi establishes Rebbi Shimon b'Rebbi Yehudah Amar Rebbi Shimon (that Chizkiyahu was sorry for having caused the people to bring a Pesach Sheini) - when half of Yisrael were Tamei and half were Tahor, and women supplemented the half that were Tahor, to make them a majority.
What did Chizkiyahu hold ...

  1. ... initially?
  2. ... finally?
(a) In the event that Beis-Din declared a leap-year on the thirtieth of Adar, what does Ula say about sanctifying Adar Sheini?

(b) According to Rava, if they did, the Kidush is void.
What does Rav Nachman say?

(a) According to Raban Shimon ben Gamliel, one starts to ask and to Darshen about Hilchos Pesach two weeks before Pesach.
What does the Tana Kama say?

(b) What does this prompt Rava to ask Rav Nachman concerning the previous Halachah? What was his concern in connection with eating Chametz on Pesach?

(c) What was Rav Nachman's reply?

Answers to questions

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