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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sanhedrin 10


(a) Rava rules that, in a case where two witnesses testify that Reuven committed adultery with a betrothed girl and were then made Zomemin, they are sentenced to death.
What does he rule with regard to paying the Kesuvah ...
  1. ... that they attempted to make her lose?
  2. ... in a case where they also named her father?
(b) Does Rava argue with Rav Yosef, who learned on the previous Amud, that the husband's witnesses are exempt from paying for the Kesuvah, even if the witnesses did the girl's father?
(a) What will be the Din in a case where witnesses become Zomemin after testifying ...
  1. ... that Reuven committed bestiality with an ox?
  2. ... that they also named the owner of the ox?
(b) What Kashya do we have with this set of rulings, also issued by Rava?

(c) In fact, Rava needed to present it only because of the She'eilah that accompanied it.
What did he ask about a case where Reuven said 'P'loni Rava Shori'?

(d) How did he resolve the She'eilah?

(a) What do we learn from the Pasuk in Ki Seitzei (in connection with Malkos) "u'Shefat'tum"?

(b) How do we query this from the continuation of the Pasuk "ve'Hitzdiku" ... "ve'Hirshi'u"?

(c) To answer this, we cite Ula.
What is puzzling about Ula's question 'Remez le'Eidim Zomemin min ha'Torah Minayin'?

(a) So what did Ula really mean to ask?

(b) Why can we not learn this from the Pasuk in Yisro "Lo Sa'aneh"?

(c) Ula learns it from the Pasuk "ve'Hitzdiku es ha'Tzadik, ve'Hirshi'u es ha'Rasha, ve'Hayah Im Bin Hakos ha'Rasha".
Why can this Pasuk not be understood literally?

(d) So how does Ula interpret the Pasuk? How does he resolve his She'eilah from there?

(a) According to Rebbi Yishmael in our Mishnah, Chayvei Malkos require twenty-three Dayanim. Abaye quotes the source as 'Rasha' 'Rasha', because the Torah writes by Malkos "ve'Hayah Im bin Hakos ha'Rasha".
From where does he learn it?

(b) Rava disagrees.
What does he mean when he gives Rebbi Yishmael's reason as "Malkos be'Makom Miysah Omedes"?

(c) Rava's son Rav Acha asked Rav Ashi about this explanation from the Halachah that Malkos requires Umd'na'? What is Umd'na?

(d) What is then Rav Acha's Kashya on Rava?

(a) How does Rav Ashi initially answer Rav Acha's Kashya, based on the Pasuk "ve'Niklah Achicha le'Einecha"?

(b) Rav Acha then asks further from the Beraisa 'Amduhu le'Kabeil Esrim, Ein Makin Oso Ela Makos ha'Re'uyos le'Hishtalesh'.
What does this mean?

(c) How does this pose a Kashya on Rava?

(d) How did Rav Ashi use the same Pasuk to answer this Kashya too?

Answers to questions



(a) We extrapolate from our Mishnah 'Ibur ha'Chodesh bi'Sheloshah', Chishuv Lo ka'Tani, Kidush Lo ka'Tani.
How do we define ...
  1. ... 'Ibur ha'Chodesh'?
  2. ... 'Chishuv ha'Chodesh'?
  3. ... 'Kidush ha'Chodesh'?
(b) What problem do we have with our Mishnah as it stands?

(c) On what grounds does Rava reject Abaye's answer 'T'ni Kidush ha'Chodesh', despite the fact that he has support from a Beraisa?

(d) Who is the author of the Beraisa that supports Abaye's interpretation of our Mishnah?

(a) What does Rava mean when he answers 'Kidush be'Yom Ibur, bi'Sheloshah, Achar Ibur, Leka Kidush'?

(b) The author of our Mishnah is then Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Tzadok.
What does he say in a Beraisa, in a case where the moon was not seen in its time?

(c) What does 'in its time' mean? Why is that?

(d) Rav Nachman says exactly the opposite. He establishes our Mishnah like P'liymu, who rules in a Beraisa - 'bi'Zemano Ein Mekadshin Oso, she'Lo bi'Zemano, Mekadshin Oso'.
Why is that?

(a) According to Rav Ashi, our Mishnah means 'Chishuv de'Ibur'.
Then why does the Tana say 'Ibur', and not 'Chishuv' (like we asked originally)?

(b) The author of our Mishnah, according to Rav Ashi, is Rebbi Eliezer.
What does Rebbi Eliezer learn from the Pasuk in Behar "ve'Kidashtem es Sh'nas ha'Chamishim Shanah"?

(c) What is the purpose of 'Chishuv ha'Chodesh'? What would they otherwise have done?

(d) What problem are Beis-Din likely to encounter when making Chishuv?

(a) Raban Shimon ben Gamliel requires a progression of three to seven judges for Ibur Shanah.
Which three stages mark the three, five and seven judges respectively?

(b) What happens if ...

  1. ... two of the three judges agree not to go on to the debating stage, or three of the five agree not to declare the year a leap-year?
  2. ... one of the three judges maintains that they should not go on to the debating stage, or two of the five maintain that they should not declare the year a leap-year?
(a) Rebbi Yitzchak bar Nachmeini and Rebbi Shimon ben Pazi argue over the significance of the three, five and seven judges. One of them attributes these numbers to Birchas Kohanim.
What does this mean?

(b) What does the other one say?

(c) What is the significance of this connection?

(a) What did Abaye comment when Rav Yosef quoted a Beraisa that supports the latter opinion?

(b) What did Rav Yosef respond?

Answers to questions

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