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Sanhedrin 110

SANHEDRIN 106-110 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the third Yahrzeit of her father, Reb Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner), who passed away 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Talmud study serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah



(a) Korach's wife, the very antithesis of On's, encouraged Korach to 'take up arms'. She accused Moshe of taking the leadership for himself, designating the Kehunah Gedolah for his brother - and reserving the deputy Kehunah Gedolah for his nephews.

(b) She also accused him of giving Terumah to the Kohanim. Granted, the Levi'im (to which group Korach belonged) receive Ma'aser Rishon - but even from that, she complained, they had to give the Kohanim Terumas Ma'aser.

(c) She also accused Moshe of having ordered Korach and the Levi'im - to shave off all their hair, making them look ridiculous, besides treating them like dung.

(d) She explained the fact that Moshe was a Levi too, and had therefore to all his hair just like they did - by citing the Pasuk in Shoftim "Tamos Nafshi im P'lishtim" (sometimes a person is willing to suffer a little, if in the process, he can make others suffer, too).

(a) And why did Korach's wife advise him to take garments made of Techeles for all his band - because she claimed, if T'cheiles is holy, when why should the Mitzvah comprise only one thread? Why not the whole garment?

(b) The Pasuk ...

1. ... "Chachmos Nashim Bansah Beisah" - refers to the wife of On, and ...
2. ... "ve'Aveles be'Yadehah Taharsenah" - to the wife of Korach.
(c) The two hundred and fifty men who joined Korach were all unique individuals. From the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Keri'ei Mo'ed" we also learn - that they were all able to fix a leap-year and to arrange the months.
2. ... "Anshei Shem" - that they were also well-known personalities.
(d) We learn from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Vayishma Moshe Vayipol al Panav" - that the people suspected him of having committed adultery (see Agados Maharsha), causing him to fall on his face from embarrassment, according to Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni Amar Rebbi Yonasan.
2. ... "Vayekan'u le'Moshe ba'Machaneh" and that of "u'Moshe Yikach es ha'Ohel Venatah Lo mi'Chutz la'Machaneh" - that they all warned their wives not to be alone with Moshe until he moved his tent outside the camp (see Agados Maharsha).
1. Resh Lakish extrapolates from the Pasuk "Vayakam Moshe Vayeilech el Dasam va'Aviram" - that one is forbidden to uphold a Machlokes (but must try and diffuse it).
2. Rav learns from the Pasuk "ve'Lo Yihyeh ke'Korach ve'cha'Adaso" - that someone who does so, transgresses a La'av.
(b) And Rav Ashi adds to this from the Pesukim there "Moshe *Lo*" and the Pasuk "Vayomer Hashem *Lo* Od Havei Yadcha be'Cheikecha*" - that he also deserves to be stricken with Tzara'as.

(c) According to ...

1. ... Rav Yosef, anyone who quarrels with the institution of Malchus Beis David - deserves to be bitten by a snake.
2. ... Rav Chisda, we compare someone who quarrels with his Rebbe (like Korach did) - to someone who quarrels with Hashem, as the Pasuk writes by Korach "ba'Hatzosam al Hashem" (even though they had only quarreled with Moshe).
(d) And ...
1. ... Rebbi Chanina bar Papa learns from the Pasuk "Lo Aleinu Telunoseichem Ki-im Al Hashem" - that to complain that one's Rebbe is treating one unfairly or harshly, is equivalent to ascribing the same to Hashem.
2. ... Rebbi Avahu learns from the Pasuk "Vayedaber ha'Am b'Elokim u've'Moshe" - that when one questions one's Rebbe, one questions Hashem.
(a) The Pasuk in Koheles, "Osher Shamur le'Ba'alav le'Ra'aso" Resh Lakish explains, refers - to Korach (who used his vast wealth to buy over the people).

(b) Rebbi Elazar explains that the Pasuk (in connection with those whom the earth swallowed up) "ve'es Kol ha'Yekum Asher be'Ragleihem" - refers to their property (because property tends to place a man on his feet.

(c) Three hundred (i.e. many) mules were needed, according to Rebbi Levi, to carry the locks and keys of Korach's treasuries - not because they were made of metal and were therefore exceptionally heavy, since in fact, they were made of leather, and therefore exceptionally light.

(a) Korach acquired his wealth - by finding one of the three treasure-houses where Yosef hid all the money that he received from the entire world (on behalf of Paroh), when they came to buy corn for their fellow countrymen.

(b) The second of the three vast treasure-houses was found by Antoninus ben Asoirus (Rebbi's friend who later converted); and the third - remains hidden, for the Tzadikim in the time of Mashi'ach.

(c) Rebbi Yochanan extrapolates from the Pasuk ...

1. ... (in connection with those whom the earth swallowed up "ve'es Kol ha'Adam Asher le'Korach" - that Korach himself was not swallowed up together with his followers.
2. ... "ba'Achol ha'Eish es Chamishim u'Masayim Ish" - that he was not burned together his followers either.
(d) The Tana of a Beraisa disagrees however. He maintains - that Korach was both burned and swallowed up.

(e) Rebbi Yochanan will refute the Tana's proof from the Pasuk "Vativla Osam ve'es Korach" - by attaching "ve'es Korach to "be'Mos ha'Eidah" (which follows [pertaining perhaps, to the people who died in the ensuing plague]).

(a) The sun and moon both moved up to Z'vul (a more elevated heaven than Raki'a, where they normally operate) and threatened - to remain there and not to resume shining on the world, unless Hashem took the part of Moshe against Korach?

(b) Hashem responded by shooting arrows at them until they returned to Raki'a, and resumed their regular beat. His response to their defense of Moshe was negative - because they only upheld the honor of Moshe, but not His honor ...

(c) ... when day by day, people prostrate themselves to them (the sun and the moon).

(d) The offshoot of this episode is - that, from then on, the sun and moon do not begin to shine until Hashem has shot arrows at them.

(a) Rava explains the Pasuk "ve'Im Beri'ah Yivra Hashem u'Fatzesah ha'Adamah es Pihah" - with reference to Gehinom.

(b) In light of the Pasuk "Ein Kol Chadash Tachas ha'Shemesh", we amend Moshe's request to moving the mouth of Gehinom close to the area where Korach, Dasan and Aviram were standing, if need be (and not to creating Gehinom, which must have been created already).

(c) Rav explains the Pasuk "u'Venei Korach Lo Meisu" to mean - that Korach's sons did not die, but entered alive into an elevated spot in Gehinom, where they sit and sing Shirah to Hashem.

(a) An Arab merchant once showed Rabah bar bar Chanah two cracks in the desert from which smoke rose - because that was the spot where Korach and his rebels (who were burning in Gehinom) were swallowed up by the earth.

(b) The Arab then took a piece of wool - which he soaked in water and placed on the tip of his sword. He then placed his sword into one of the cracks, and when he withdrew it, the wool was sizzling.

(c) He instructed Rabah bar bar Chanah to place his ear near the ground and listen. What he heard was - the cries of Korach and his men, announcing 'Moshe and his Torah are genuine, and we are impostors'.

(d) They have to do this - once every thirty days, when they are returned to that spot from Gehinom ('like a hot piece of meat on a plate').




(a) Rebbi Akiva's second proof that the Dor ha'Midbar will receive no portion in Olam ha'Ba is from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Asher Nishba'ti be'Api Im Yevo'un el Menuchasi". We have already cited Rebbi Eliezer, who disagrees on the basis of the Pasuk there "Isfu Li Chasidai Korsei B'risi Alei Zevach". We know that this Pasuk refers to the Dor ha'Midbar - because they were the ones with whom Hashem made a covenant over Korbanos (as hinted in Parshas Yisro) at Har Sinai.

(b) And he counters Rebbi Akiva's second proof - by stressing the word "be'Api", to say that Hashem did indeed swear in His anger, but now that His anger has abated, He has retracted.

(c) According to Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah, the Pasuk "Isfu Li Chasidai" refers to future generations. If "Korsei B'risi" refers to Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah, "Alei Zevach" refers to - Rebbi Akiva and his colleagues (the other nine martyrs).

(d) And based on the Pasuk in Yeshayah "u'Feduyei Hashem Yeshuvun u'Va'u Tzi'on be'Rinah", Rebbi Shimon ben Menasyah sides with Rebbi Eliezer, granting the Dor ha'Midbar Olam ha'Ba. He knows that this Pasuk refers to the Dor ha'Midbar - since they are the ones who were redeemed from Egypt.

(a) Rabah bar bar Chanah Amar Rebbi Yochanan extrapolates from the Pasuk "Haloch Vekarasa be'Oznei Yerushalayim Leimor. Zacharti Lach Chesed Ne'urayich ... Lechtech Acharai ba'Midbar be'Eretz Lo Zeru'ah" - that if others live off the merits of the Dor ha'Midbar, then how much more so the Dor ha'Midbar themselves.

(b) He criticizes Rebbi Akiva, based on this Pasuk - by accusing him of relinquishing his piety (by not learning this Pasuk the way he did, thereby judging the Dor ha'Midbar favorably).

(c) Rebbi Akiva in our Mishnah learns from the Pasuk "Vayashlichem el Eretz Acheres ka'Yom ha'Zeh" - that the ten tribes will never return to Eretz Yisrael.

(d) Rebbi Eliezer disagrees. He interprets "ka'Yom ha'Zeh" to mean - that just as the day changes from darkness to light, so too, will the ten tribes go from exile to redemption.

(a) Rebbi Akiva in a Beraisa explains the Pasuk ...
1. ... "*Vayitshem Hashem me'Al Admasam* be'Af u've'Cheimah u've'Ketzef Gadol" - to mean that they will lose this world.
2. ...Vayashlichem el Eretz Acheres ka'Yom ha'Zeh" to mean - that they will not receive a portion in Olam ha'Ba.
1. Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah Ish K'far Acco quoting Rebbi Shimon learns from "ka'Yom ha'Zeh" - to mean that if they persist in their evil ways (like they behave today) they will lose their portion in Olam ha'Ba, but not if they do Teshuvah.
2. Rebbi learns from "ba'Yom ha'Hu Yitaka be'Shofar Gadol ... u'Va'u ha'Ovdim me'Eretz Ashur" - that the Ten Tribes will receive a portion in Olam ha'Ba.
(c) Some commentaries interpret 'Olam ha'Ba' in this context as - the days of Mashi'ach (who will not accept them because they spoke evil about Eretz Yisrael), and not Olam ha'Ba as we have understood it until now.

(d) The continuation of the Pasuk ''ve'ha'Nidachim me'Eretz Mitzrayim'' refers - to Dor ha'Midbar.

(a) Rabah bar bar Chanah ... quotes here a different Pasuk in his criticism of Rebbi Akiva "Haloch ve'Karasa ... Tzafonah ve'Amarta Shuvah Meshuvah ('Return, you naughty one')" - implying that they will all return (even the ten tribes).

(b) Raban Gamliel in a Beraisa quotes the Pasuk in Zechari'ah "Ki Hinei ha'Yom Ba Bo'er ka'Tanur, Vahayah Kol Zeidim ve'Chol Osei Rish'ah Kash ... ". He explain the conclusion of the Pasuk "Asher Lo Ya'azov Lahem *Shoresh va'Anaf"* to mean - that the young children of the Rish'ei Yisrael will not live in this world (they will die stillborn ["Shoresh"), and will not receive a portion in Olam ha'Ba ["va'Anaf"].

(c) He does not refer to the Rish'ei Yisrael themselves - who certainly will not receive a portion in Olam ha'Ba (as we learned in Kesuvos from "Resha'im bal Yakumu").

(a) Rebbi Akiva disagrees. He interprets the Pasuk ...
1. ... in Tehilim "Shomer Pesayim Hashem" - to mean that Hashem will look after the children (who after all, did not sin) and ensure that they receive a portion in Olam ha'Ba.
2. ... in Daniel "Gudu Ilna ve'Chablohi" (as additional proof) to mean - that even when cuts down the trees (destroys the Resha'im), he will leave the roots (their children).
(b) And he explains the Pasuk "Asher Lo Ya'azov Lahem *Shoresh va'Anaf*" (which serves as Raban Gamliel's proof) to mean - that he will leave no Mitzvah or remnant of a Mitzvah unpaid in this world.

(c) We cited this Machlokes in the first place - to explain what Rebbi Yochanan meant when he said that Rebbi Akiva relinquished his piety.

(a) Alternatively, Rebbi Akiva interprets "Shoresh" as the Neshamah, and "Anaf", as the body. Both Tana'im however, learn from the Pasuk "ve'Te'aved Kol Zachar" - that the Rish'ei Ovdei-Kochavim will not receive a portion in Olam ha'Ba.

(b) We refer specifically to the *'Rish'ei* Ovdei-Kochavim' - because as far as the Chasidei Umos ha'Olam is concerned, we already cited earlier in the Perek a Machlokes Tana'im as to whether they will receive a portion or not.

(c) Rebbi Chiya and Rebbi bar Rebbi argue over which stage a Katan receives a portion in Olam ha'Ba. One says from the moment he is born; the other one holds - from the time that he begins to speak.

(d) According to Ravina, he already receives a portion from the time that he is conceived (even if he turns out to be a stillborn child). Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak learns from the Pasuk "Oni Ani ve'Gove'a mi'No'ar, Nasasi Eimecha Afunah" that the criterion is the B'ris Milah - because what the Pasuk is saying is that even though a person is poor in Mitzvos, he will merit (Olam ha'Ba) like Tzadikim, by whom the Torah writes 'Vayigva Vayamos", from the moment he carries the fear of Hashem which rolls on him (which he begins to do from the time of the B'ris Milah).

(a) And according to Rebbi Meir, based on the Pasuk "Pischu She'arim Veyavo Goy Tzadik Shomer Emunim" (which he interprets as "Shomer Ameinim") - a child merits a portion from the moment that he begins answering 'Amen'.

(b) According to Rebbi Chanina - the acronym of 'Amen' in 'Keil Melech Ne'eman'.

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